OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 20 — Oct. 3, 2005
  • pp: 7823–7831

The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides

Mikael Svalgaard, Anders Harpøth, and Marc Andersen  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 20, pp. 7823-7831 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.007823


View Full Text Article

Acrobat PDF (539 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A behavior is reported where the index change process used for UV writing of integrated optical waveguides in deuterium loaded Ge:SiO2 glass can become unstable and suddenly switch off or on. It is shown that such discontinuities are associated with abrupt changes in the amount of absorbed UV power. We suggest that these events are controlled by a coupling between UV absorption, local heating and the D2-GeO2 reaction rate. From our findings we predict, and confirm experimentally, that strong waveguides can not be fabricated under normal UV writing conditions in thin core layers with a low initial UV absorption. Our findings show that an improved understanding of the waveguide formation process and future process development requires that thermal effects are taken into account.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.0130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(220.0220) Optical design and fabrication : Optical design and fabrication
(220.4610) Optical design and fabrication : Optical fabrication

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: August 30, 2005
Revised Manuscript: September 14, 2005
Published: October 3, 2005

Citation
Mikael Svalgaard, Anders Harpøth, and Marc Andersen, "The role of local heating in the formation process of UV written optical waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 7823-7831 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-7823


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset

References

  1. M. Svalgaard, C.V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, O. Poulsen, 'Direct UV-writing of buried single-mode channel waveguides in Ge-doped silica films,' Electron. Lett. 30, 1401-1402 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. M.Y. Park, W. Yoon, S. Han, G. H. Song, "Fabrication of low-cost planar wavelength-selective optical add-drop multiplexer by employing UV photosensitivity," Electron. Lett. 38, 1532-1533 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. G.D. Emmerson, S.P. Watts, C.B.E. Gawith, V. Albanis, M. Ibsen, R.B. Williams, P.G.R. Smith, "Fabrication of directly UV written channel waveguides with simultaneously defined integral gratings," Electron. Lett. 38, 1531�??1532 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. M. Svalgaard, K. Faerch, L.-U. Andersen, "Variable optical attenuator fabricated by direct UV writing," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2097-2103 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Peucheret, Y. Geng, M. Svalgaard, B. Zsigri, H.R. Sørensen, N. Chi, H.-J. Deyerl, M. Kristensen, P. Jeppesen, "Direct UV written Michelson Interferometer for RZ signal generation using phase-to-intensity modulation conversion," Phot. Tech. Lett. 17, 1674-1676 (2005).
  6. P.J. Lemaire, R.M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, W.A. Reed, "High Pressure H2 loading as a technique for achieving ultrahigh UV photosensitivity and thermal sensitivity in GeO2 doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 29, 1191-1193 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. G.D. Maxwell, B.J. Ainslie, "Demonstration of a directly written directional coupler using UV induced photosensitivity in a planar silica waveguide," Electron. Lett. 31, 95-96 (1995). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Zauner, K. Kulstad, J. Rathje, M. Svalgaard, "Directly UV-written silica-on-silicon planar waveguides with low insertion loss," Electron. Lett. 34, 1582-1584 (1998).
  9. M.J. Yuen, "Ultraviolet absorption studies of germanium silicate glasses," App. Opt. 21, 136-140 (1982).
  10. M. Svalgaard, "Effect of D2 outdiffusion on direct UV writing of optical waveguides," Electron. Lett. 35, 1840-1842 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. T.W. Whitbread, R.A. Betts, F. Lui, �??Non destructive two-dimensional refractive index profiling of integrated optical waveguides by an interferometric method,�?? Appl. Opt. 30, 4384-4389, (1991).
  12. M. Svalgaard, A. Harpøth, T. Rosbirk, "Characterization of UV-written waveguides with luminescence microscopy," Opt. Express 13, 5170-5178 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-13-5170.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-13-5170</a> [CrossRef]
  13. L.N. Skuja, A.N. Trukhin, A.E. Plaudis, "Luminescence in germanium-doped glassy SiO2," Phys. Status Solidi. A 84, K153-157 (1984).
  14. M. Svalgaard, A. Harpøth, M. Andersen, "Discontinuities during UV writing of waveguides," in Proceedings of OSA Topical Meeting on Bragg Gratings, Poling and Photosensitivity, B.J. Eggleton, ed., (Technical Digest Series, Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2005), 121-123.
  15. S. Adachi, "Model dielectric constants of Si and Ge," Phys. Rev. B 38, 12966-12976 (1988). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Iino, M. Kuwabara, K. Kokura, "Mechanisms of hydrogen-induced losses in silica-based optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1675-1679 (1990). [CrossRef]
  17. P.J. Lemaire, A.M. Vengsarkar, W.A. Reed, D.J. DiGiovanni, "Thermally enhanced ultraviolet photosensitivity in GeO2 and P2O5 doped optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2034-2036 (1995). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-light-induced processes in germanium-doped silica," Phys. Rev. B 64, 144201 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. P.J. Lemaire, "Reliability of optical fibers exposed to hydrogen: Prediction of long-term loss increases," Opt. Eng. 30, 780-789 (1991). [CrossRef]
  20. K. Færch, M. Svalgaard, "Symmetrical waveguide device fabricated by direct UV writing," Phot.. Tech. Lett. 14, 173-175, (2002).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited