OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 20 — Oct. 3, 2005
  • pp: 8231–8242

Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals

Shih-Peng Tai, Tsung-Han Tsai, Wen-Jeng Lee, Dar-Bin Shieh, Yi-Hua Liao, Hsin-Yi Huang, Kenneth Y.-J. Zhang, Hsiang-Lin Liu, and Chi-Kuang Sun  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 20, pp. 8231-8242 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.008231


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (3947 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

Harmonics-based optical microscopy has been widely applied in biomedical researches due to its noninvasiveness to the studied biomaterials. Due to momentum conservation consideration, most previous studies collect harmonics generation signals in a forward geometry, especially for third harmonic generation signals. However, the adopted forward transmission type geometry is not feasible for future clinical diagnosis. In this paper, first virtual biopsy based on backward propagating optical higher harmonics, combining second harmonic and third harmonic, is demonstrated in the fixed human skin specimens. In our study, third harmonic generation can provide morphologic information including the distribution of basal cells while second harmonic generation can provide distribution of collagen fibers in dermis. Therefore, this technique is ideal for future noninvasive in vivo skin disease examination without dye.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy
(190.4160) Nonlinear optics : Multiharmonic generation

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: August 22, 2005
Revised Manuscript: September 24, 2005
Published: October 3, 2005

Citation
Shih-Peng Tai, Tsung-Han Tsai, Wen-Jeng Lee, Dar-Bin Shieh, Yi-Hua Liao, Hsin-Yi Huang, Kenneth Zhang, Hsiang-Lin Liu, and Chi-Kuang Sun, "Optical biopsy of fixed human skin with backward-collected optical harmonics signals," Opt. Express 13, 8231-8242 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8231


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. <a href= "http://www.skincancerinfo.com/sectionb/biopsy.html">http://www.skincancerinfo.com/sectionb/biopsy.html</a>
  2. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, �??In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,�?? J. Invest. Dermatol. 104, 946-952 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Rajadhyaksha, S. Gonzalez, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Aderson, R. H. Webb RH, and R. R. Anderson, �??In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,�?? J. Invest. Dermatol. 113, 293-303 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. R. Masters, and P. T. C. So, �??Confocal microscopy and multi-photon excitation microscopy of human skin in vivo,�?? Opt. Express 8, 2-10 (2001). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-1-2">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-8-1-2</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. J. Caspers, G. W. Lucassen, and G. J. Puppels, �??Combined in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal microscopy of human skin,�?? Biophy. J. 85, 572-580 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. L. D. Swindle, S. G. Thomas, M. Freeman, and P. M. Delaney, �??View of normal human skin in vivo as observed using fluorescent fiber-optic confocal microscopic imaging,�?? J Invest. Dermatol. 121, 706-712 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, �??In vivo endoscopic optical biopsy with optical coherent tomography,�?? Science 276, 2037-2039 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, �??Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherent tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, �??Submicron axial resolution optical coherence tomography,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 1800-1802 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, �??Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,�?? Science 249, 73-76 (1990). [CrossRef]
  11. E. H. K. Stelzer, S. Hell, S. Lindek, R. Stricker, R. Pick, C. Storz, G. Ritter, and N. Salmon, �??Nonlinear absorption extends confocal fluorescence microscopy into the ultra-violet regime and confines the illumination volume,�?? Opt. Commun. 104, 223-228 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. P. T. C. So, H. Kim, and I. E. Kochevar, �??Two photon deep tissue ex vivo imaging of mouse dermal and subcutaneous structures,�?? Opt. Express 3, 339-350 (1998). <a href= "http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-9-339">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-9-339</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. U. K. Tirlapur, K. König, C. Peuckert, R. Krieg, and J. J. Halbhuber, �??Femtosecond near infrared laser pulses elicit generation of reactive oxygen species in mammalian cells leading to apoptosis-like death,�?? Exp. Cell Research 263, 88-97 (2001) [CrossRef]
  14. K. König K, P. T. C. So, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, �??Cellular response to near-infrared femtosecond laser pulses in two photon microscope,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 135-136 (1997). [CrossRef]
  15. I-H. Chen, S.-W. Chu, C.-K. Sun, P.-C. Cheng, and B.-L. Lin, �??Wavelength dependent cell damages in biological multi-photon confocal microscopy: A micro-spectroscopic comparison between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite laser sources,�?? Opt. Quantum. Electron. 34, 1251-1266 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Guo, P. P. Ho, H. Savage, D. Harris, P. Sacks, S. Schantz, F. Liu, N. Zhadin, and R. R. Alfano, �??Second-harmonic tomography of tissues,�?? Opt. Lett. 22, 1323-1325 (1997). [CrossRef]
  17. G. Peleg, A. Lewis, M. Linial, and L. M. Loew �??Nonlinear optical measurement of membrane potential around single molecules at selected celluar sites,�?? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 96, 6700-6704 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S.-W. Chu, I.-H. Chen, T.-M. Liu, P.-C. Cheng, C.-K.Sun, and B.-L. Lin, �??Multimodal nonlinear spectral microscopy based on femtosecond Cr:foristerite laser,�?? Opt. Lett. 26, 1909-1911 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. E. Brown, T. Mckee, E. Ditomaso, E. Pluen, B. Seed, Y. Boucher, and R. K. Jain, �??Dynamic imaging of collagen and its modulation in tumors in vivo using second-harmonic generation,�?? Nat. Med. 9, 796-800 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin, H.-J. Tsai and C.-K. Sun, �??In vivo developmental biology study using invasive multi-harmonic generation microscopy,�?? Opt. Express 11, 3093-3099 (2003). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3093">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-23-3093</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C.-K. Sun, S.-W. Chu, S.-Y. Chen, T.-H. Tsai, T.-M. Liu, C.-Y. Lin and H.-J. Tsai, �??Harmonics generation microscopy for developmental biology,�?? J. Struct. Biol. 147, 19-30 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C.-K. Sun, C.-C. Chen, S.-W. Chu, T.-H. Tsai, Y.-C. Chen and B.-L. Lin, �??Multi-harmonic-generation biopsy of skin,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 2488-2490 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Barad, H. Eizenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, �??Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. P. J. Campagnola, M. D. Wei, A. Lewis, L. M. Loew, �??High resolution non-linear optical microscopy of living cells by second harmonic generation,�?? Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. T. Yeh, N. Nassif, A. Zoumi, and B. Tromberg, �??Selective corneal imaging using combined second-harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 2082-2084 (2002). [CrossRef]
  26. A. Zoumi, A. T. Yeh, and B. Tromberg, �??Imaging cells and extracellular matrix in vivo by using second harmonic generation and two photon excited fluorescence,�?? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 99, 11014-11019 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. M. Williams, W. R. Zipfel, and W. W. Webb, �??Interpreting second-harmonic generation images of collagen I fibrils,�?? Biophys. J. 88, 1377-1386 (2005). [CrossRef]
  28. M. Han, G. Giese, and J. F. Bille, �??Second harmonic generation imaging of collagen fibrils in cornea and sclera,�?? Opt. Express 13, 5791-5797 (2005) <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5791">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-15-5791</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, �??An epi-detected coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (E-CARS) microscope with high spectral resolution and high sensitivity,�?? J. Phys. Chem. B 105, 1277-1280 (2001). [CrossRef]
  30. A. Volkmer, J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, �??Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001). [CrossRef]
  31. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, �??Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363-1375 (2002). [CrossRef]
  32. A. Volkmer, �??Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stoke Raman scattering microscopy,�?? J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, R59-R81 (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. J. X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, �??Green's function formulation for third-harmonic generation microscopy,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1604-1610 (2002). [CrossRef]
  34. C.-K Sun, S.-W Chu, S.-P. Tai, M. -C. Chan, I - C. Hsiao, C. -H. Lin, Y. -C. Chen, and B. -L. Lin, �??Origin of backward second harmonic generation emission in a biological sample examined by laser scanning microscopes�??, in Technical Digest of Conference on Laser and Electro-optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2005), Baltimore, MD, USA, paper CWP7 (2005).
  35. T.-H. Tsai, S.-P. Tai, W.-J. Lee, H.-Y. Huang, Y.-H. Liao and C.-K. Sun, �??Signal degradation study in fixed human skin using confocal microscopy and higher-harmonic optical microscopy,�?? submitted to Biophys. J.
  36. S.-Y. Chen, S.-P. Tai, T.�??H. Tsai and C.�??K. Sun, �??Direct backward-emitted third-harmonic generation and its application to clinical microscopy�??, in Technical Digest of Conference on Laser and Electro-optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS 2005), Baltimore, MD, USA, paper QMI3 (2005).
  37. D. Yelin and Y. Silberberg, �??Laser scanning third-harmonic-generation microscopy in biology,�?? Opt. Express 5, 169-175 (1999). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-5-8-169">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-5-8-169</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. J. A. Squier, M. Muller, G. J. Brakenhoff, and K. R. Wilson, �??Third harmonic generation microscopy,�?? Opt. Express 3, 315-324 (1998). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-9-315">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-3-9-315</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. P. J. Campagnola, A. C. Millard, M. Terasaki, P. E. Hoppe, C. J. Malone, and W. A. Mohler, �??Three-dimensional high-resolution second-harmonic generation imaging of endogenous structural proteins in biological tissues,�?? Biophys. J. 81, 493-508 (2002). [CrossRef]
  40. S.-W. Chu, I.-S. Chen, T.-M. Liu, C.-K. Sun, S.-P. Lee, B.-L. Lin, P.-C. Cheng, M.-X. Kuo, D.-J. Lin, and H.-L. Liu, �??Nonlinear bio-photonic crystal effects revealed with multi-modal nonlinear microscopy,�?? J. Microsc. 208, Part 3, 190-200 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. B. R. Masters, P. T. C. So, and E. Gratton, �??Multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy of in vivo human skin�?? Biophys. J. 72, 2405-2412 (1997)

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material


» Media 1: MOV (1653 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (13821 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited