OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 22 — Oct. 31, 2005
  • pp: 8760–8765

Surface structure silicon based impact-ionization multiplier for optical detection

Hong-Wei Lee, Joshua L. Beutler, and Aaron R. Hawkins  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 22, pp. 8760-8765 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (156 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



This paper presents an innovative solid-state current amplifier based on impact ionization. The operation principle, fabrication, and test results for this device are reported. This amplifier was built on a silicon surface using standard microelectronics processes including ion implantation. Testing was performed by connecting the device to both silicon and indium-gallium-arsenide photodiodes to demonstrate its compatibility with arbitrary current sources. Current gains above 100 along with pre-amplified leakage currents of less than 10 nA were measured.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(040.6070) Detectors : Solid state detectors
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(260.3230) Physical optics : Ionization

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: September 1, 2005
Revised Manuscript: October 14, 2005
Published: October 31, 2005

Hong-Wei Lee, Joshua Beutler, and Aaron Hawkins, "Surface structure silicon based impact-ionization multiplier for optical detection," Opt. Express 13, 8760-8765 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P.A. Wolff, �??Theory of Secondary Electron Cascade in Metals,�?? Phys. Rev. 95, 56-66 (1954). [CrossRef]
  2. C. L. Anderson, and C. R. Crowell, �??Threshold Energies for Electron-Hole Pair Production by Impact Ionization in Semiconductors,�?? Phys. Rev. B 5, 2267-2272 (1972). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Cohen-Jonathan, L. Giraudet, A. Bonzo, and J. P. Praseuth, �??Waveguide AlInAs/GaAlInAs avalanche photodiode with a gain-bandwidth product over 160 GHz,�?? Electron. Lett. 33, 1492�??1493 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. G. S. Kinsey, J. C. Campbell, and A. G. Dentai, �??Waveguide avalanche photodiode operating at 1.55 μ m with a gain-bandwidth product of 320 GHz,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 842�??844 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, �??Avalanche noise measurements in thin Si p- i- n diodes,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3926�??3928 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Cartier, M. V. Fischetti, E. A. Eklund, and F. R. Mcfeely, �??Impact ionization in silicon,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3339-3341 (1993). [CrossRef]
  7. A. R. Hawkins, W. Wu, P. Abraham, K. Streubel, and J. E. Bowers, �??High Gain-Bandwidth-Product Silicon Heterointerface Photodetector,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 303-305 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. Hong-Wei Lee and Aaron R. Hawkins, �??Solid-state current amplifier based on impact ionization,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 073511 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited