OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 22 — Oct. 31, 2005
  • pp: 8781–8800

Measurements of atmospheric brightness temperature fluctuations and their implications on passive remote sensing

Avishai Ben-David, Stephen K. Holland, Gabriel Laufer, and Jason D. Baker  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 22, pp. 8781-8800 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (355 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Passive remote sensing of airborne chemicals at infrared wavelengths may be limited by temporal fluctuations in atmospheric brightness temperatures δT(Δt). Brightness temperatures in two infrared spectral bands were simultaneously measured on clear and cloudy days along three lines of sights. For time windows Δt < 3–5 s, δTt) remained constant at the sensor noise level and rapidly increased as Δt increased. The fluctuation time scale for the cloudy day was longer than for the clear day. The long correlation time for T(t) limits the utility of signal averaging in improving detection signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The simultaneous outputs of the two spectral channels during the clear day exhibited no spectral coherence at Δt < 3 s and limited coherence at Δt > 30 s. Measurements during the cloudy day were largely coherent. Consequently, band-by-band subtraction may have limited benefits.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.1120) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Air pollution monitoring
(010.1300) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric propagation
(010.1330) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Atmospheric turbulence
(040.3060) Detectors : Infrared
(120.0280) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Remote sensing and sensors
(280.7060) Remote sensing and sensors : Turbulence
(290.5930) Scattering : Scintillation
(300.2140) Spectroscopy : Emission

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: August 31, 2005
Revised Manuscript: October 3, 2005
Published: October 31, 2005

Avishai Ben-David, Stephen Holland, Gabriel Laufer, and Jason Baker, "Measurements of atmospheric brightness temperature fluctuations and their implications on passive remote sensing," Opt. Express 13, 8781-8800 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. P. L. Hanst and S. T. Hanst, �??Gas measurement in the fundamental infrared region,�?? in Air monitoring by spectroscopic techniques, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, NY, 1994).
  2. D. W. T. Griffith and I. M. Jamie, �??Fourier transform infrared spectrometry in atmospheric and trace gas analysis,�?? in Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Wiley, Chichester, England, 2000).
  3. D. F. Flanigan, �??Hazardous cloud imaging: a new way of using passive infrared,�?? Appl. Opt. 36, 7027-7036 (1997). [CrossRef]
  4. A. Ben-David, �??Remote detection of biological aerosols at a distance of 3 km with a passive Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) sensor,�?? Opt. Express 11, 418-429 (2003). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-5-418">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-5-418</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Ben-David and H. Ren, �??Detection, identification and estimation of biological aerosols and vapors with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer,�?? Appl. Opt. 42, 4887-4900 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M Therault, E Puckrin and J. O. Jensen, �??Passive standoff detection of Bacillus subtilis aerosol by Fouriertransform infrared radiometry,�?? Appl. Opt. 42, 6696-6703 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Holland, R. Krauss, G. Laufer, "Demonstration of an uncooled LiTaO3-detector-based differential absorption radiometer for remote sensing of chemical effluents," Opt. Eng. 43, 2303-2311 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. D. F. Flanigan, �??Prediction of the limits of detection of hazardous vapors by passive infrared using MODTRAN,�?? Appl. Opt. 35, 6090-6098 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. K. Holland, R. H. Krauss, G. Laufer, The effect of temperature on passive remote sensing of chemicals by differential absorption radiometry, to be published in Opt. Eng. (October 2005).
  10. N. Menyuk and D. K. Killinger, �??Temporal correlation measurements of pulsed dual CO2 lidar returns,�?? Opt. Lett. 6, 301-303 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger and C. R. Menyuk, �??Limitations of signal averaging due to temporal correlation in laser remote-sensing measurements,�?? Appl. Opt. 18, 3377-3383 (1982). [CrossRef]
  12. N. Menyuk, and D. K. Killinger, �??Assessment of relative error sources in IR DIAL measurements accuracy,�?? Appl. Opt. 17, 2690-2698 (1983). [CrossRef]
  13. N. Menyuk, D. K. Killinger and C. R. Menyuk, �??Error reduction in laser remote sensing: combined effects of cross correlation and signal averaging,�?? Appl. Opt. 24, 118-131 (1985). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Ancellet, G. M. and R. T. Menzies, �??Atmospheric correlation-time measurements and the effects on coherent Doppler lidar,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 4, 367-373 (1987). [CrossRef]
  15. R. R. Beland, �??Propagation through atmospheric optical turbulence,�?? Ch. 2, Vol. 2, The infrared and electrooptical system handbook, ed. F. G. Smith SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, USA, (1993).
  16. R. E. Hufnagel, �??Propagation through atmospheric turbulence,�?? Ch. 6 The infrared handbook revised edition, ed. W. L. Wolfe and G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Information Analysis (IRIA) Center, Environmental Research Insitute of Michigan, USA (1985).
  17. G. Laufer and A. Ben-David, �??Optimized differential absorption radiometer (DAR) for remote sensing of chemical effluents,�?? Appl. Opt. 41, 2263-2273 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. PcModWin 4.0 , MODTRAN atmospheric radiative transfer code, Ontar Corporation, North Andover, MA (2002).
  19. S. M. Kay, Modern Spectral Estimation, Ch. 4, P T R Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (1988).
  20. A Papoulis and S. U. Pillali, Probability, random variables and stochastic processes, Ch. 12, McGraw-Hill, New York, 4th edition (2002).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited