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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 22 — Oct. 31, 2005
  • pp: 9085–9093

Magnification variations due to illumination curvature and object defocus in transmission electron microscopy

Gijs van Duinen, Marin van Heel, and Ardan Patwardhan  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 22, pp. 9085-9093 (2005)

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It has previously been shown that - in theory - magnification variations can occur in an imaging system as a function of defocus, depending on the field curvature of the illuminating system. We here present the results of practical experiments to verify this effect in the transmission electron microscope. We find that with illumination settings typically used in the electron microscopy of biological macromolecules, systematic variations in magnification of ∼ 0.5% per μm defocus can easily occur. This work highlights the need for a magnification-invariant imaging mode to eliminate or to compensate for this effect.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1960) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction theory
(070.2580) Fourier optics and signal processing : Paraxial wave optics
(080.1010) Geometric optics : Aberrations (global)
(110.4850) Imaging systems : Optical transfer functions
(170.6900) Medical optics and biotechnology : Three-dimensional microscopy
(180.0180) Microscopy : Microscopy
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: March 29, 2005
Revised Manuscript: October 24, 2005
Published: October 31, 2005

Gijs van Duinen, Marin van Heel, and Ardan Patwardhan, "Magnification variations due to illumination curvature and object defocus in transmission electron microscopy," Opt. Express 13, 9085-9093 (2005)

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