OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Micha
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 23 — Nov. 14, 2005
  • pp: 9257–9264

Effect of surface waves on the irradiance distribution in the upper ocean

Hemantha W. Wijesekera, W. Scott Pegau, and Timothy J. Boyd  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 23, pp. 9257-9264 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1338 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The distribution of irradiance in the upper ocean was examined from sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). Apparent and inherent optical properties along with physical variability ranging from scales O(10 cm) to O(1 km) were collected off the coast of Oregon during the summer of 2004. Horizontal wavenumber spectra of downwelling irradiance showed that irradiance varied as a function of wavenumber and depth. The analysis indicates that irradiance variability between 1 and 20 m spatial scales was attributed to the focusing effects of surface wave geometry. The dominant wavelength of focusing at depths of 2 – 6 m was about 2 m for ~6 m s-1 wind speeds.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(010.4450) Atmospheric and oceanic optics : Oceanic optics
(120.5710) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Refraction

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: September 22, 2005
Revised Manuscript: October 30, 2005
Published: November 14, 2005

Hemantha Wijesekera, W. Scott Pegau, and Timothy Boyd, "Effect of surface waves on the irradiance distribution in the upper ocean," Opt. Express 13, 9257-9264 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Dera, J, Marine Physics, (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992, p.516).
  2. Dera, J., S. S. Sagan, and D. Stramski, �??Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new results from the Black Sea,�??�?? Oceanologia 34, 13-25 (1993).
  3. Melville, W. K., �??The role of surface-wave breaking in air-sea interaction,�??�?? Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 28, 279-321 (1996). [CrossRef]
  4. Stramski, D., and J. Tegowski, �??Effects of intermittent entrainment of air bubbles by breaking wind waves on ocean reflectance and underwater light field,�??�?? J. Geophys. Res. 106, 31,345-31,360 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. Terrill, E. J., W. K. Melville, and D. Stramski, �??Bubble entrainment by breaking waves and their influence on optical scattering in the upper ocean,�??�?? J. Geophys. Res. 106, 16815-16823 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. Dera, J., and J. Olszewski, �??Experimental study of short-period irradiance fluctuations under an undulating sea surface,�??�?? Oceanologia 10, 27 (1978).
  7. Schneck, H., "On the focusing of sunlight by ocean waves," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 653-657 (1957). [CrossRef]
  8. Snyder R. L., and Dera J., �??Wave-induced light field fluctuations in the sea,�??�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1072 (1970). [CrossRef]
  9. Zaneveld, J. R. V., E. Boss, and P. A. Hwang, �??The influence of coherent waves on the remotely sensed reflectance,�??�?? Opt. Express 9, 260-261 (2001), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-6-260">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-9-6-260</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Zaneveld, J. R. V., E. Boss, and A. Barnard, �??Influence of surface waves on measured and modeled irradiance profiles,�??�?? Appl. Opt. 40, 1442-1449, (2001). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited