OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Micha
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 23 — Nov. 14, 2005
  • pp: 9337–9345

Spatial decoherence of pulsed broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

Michael Peeters, Guy Verschaffelt, Hugo Thienpont, Shyam K. Mandre, Ingo Fischer, and Martin Grabherr  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 23, pp. 9337-9345 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.009337


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (258 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We report a strong reduction of spatial coherence of the emission of large aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers when they are driven by microsecond electrical pulses. We give evidence that this is due to a breakdown of the modal emission of these lasers. The spatial decoherence manifests itself in the formation of a Gaussian far field intensity distribution. The coherence radius we extract is 1.4 micrometer under these operating conditions, irrespective of the Fresnel number of the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser. Finally, the spatial coherence properties can be varied by changing the pulse duration or pulse amplitude.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(030.1640) Coherence and statistical optics : Coherence
(030.4070) Coherence and statistical optics : Modes
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: June 10, 2005
Revised Manuscript: September 29, 2005
Published: November 14, 2005

Citation
Michael Peeters, Guy Verschaffelt, Hugo Thienpont, Shyam Mandre, Ingo Fischer, and Martin Grabherr, "Spatial decoherence of pulsed broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Express 13, 9337-9345 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9337


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Press, 1995).
  2. T. E. Sale, Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers, Optoelectronic series; 2 (John Wiley&Sons inc., New York, 1995). ISBN 0 86380 174 9.
  3. A. Valle and L. Pesquera, �??Analytical calculation of transverse mode characteristics in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1549�??1557 (2002). [CrossRef]
  4. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Vonlehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, �??Dynamic, polarization, and transverse-mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1402�??1409 (1991). [CrossRef]
  5. P. Debernardi, G. P. Bava, C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Els�er, �??Influence of anisotropies on transverse modes in oxide-confined VCSELs,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 73�??84 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. S. F. Pereira, M. B.Willemsen, M. P. van Exter, and J. P.Woerdman, �??Pinning of daisy modes in optically pumped vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2239�??2241 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. S. Hegarty, G. Huyet, J. McInerney, and K. Choquette, �??Pattern Formation in the Transverse Section of a Laser with a Large Fresnel Number,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1434�??1437 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hegarty, G. Huyet, P. Porta, J. McInerney, K. Choquette, K. M. Geib, and H. Hou, �??Transverse-mode structure and pattern formation in oxide-confined vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 2060�??2071 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Huang, Y. Chen, and L. Lai, �??Observation of the Wave Function of a Quantum Billiard from the Transverse Patterns of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 224,102 (2002). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Gensty, K. Becker, I. Fischer,W. Els�er, C. Degen, P. Debernardi, and G. P. Bava, �??Wave Chaos in Real-World Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 233,901 (2005). [CrossRef]
  11. S. Barland, F. Marino, M. Giudici, J. Tredicce, and S. Balle, �??In situ measurement of cavity length variations across the transverse section of broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2303�??2305 (2003). [CrossRef]
  12. M. C. Cross and P. C. Hohenberg, �??Pattern formation outside of equilibrium,�?? Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 851�??1124 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. A. Schell, �??A Technique for the Determination of the Radiation Pattern of a Partially Coherent Aperture,�?? IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-15, 187�??188 (1967). [CrossRef]
  14. E. Collett and E. Wolf, �??Is complete spatial coherence necessary for the generation of highly directional light beams?�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 27�??29 (1978). [CrossRef]
  15. M. von Waldkirch, P. Lukowicz, and T. Gerhard, �??Effect of light coherence on depth of focus in head-mounted retinal projection displays,�?? Optical Engineering 43, 1552�??1560 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Grabherr, R. Jäger, R. Michalzik, B. Weigl, G. Reiner, and K. J. Ebeling, �??Efficient Single-Mode Oxide-Confined GaAs VCSEL�??s Emitting in the 850-nm Wavelength Regime,�?? IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 9, 1304�??1306 (1997) [CrossRef]
  17. M. Grabherr, M. Miller, R. Jäger, R. Michalzik, U. Martin, H. J. Unold, and K. J. Ebeling, �??High-Power VCSEL�??s: Single Devices and Densely Packed 2-D-Arrays,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 495�??502 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. M. Miller, M. Grabherr, R. King, R. Jäger, R. Michalzik, and K. J. Ebeling, �??Improved Output Performance of High-Power VCSELs,�?? IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 210�??216 (2001). [CrossRef]
  19. W. Nakwaski, �??Thermal aspects of efficient operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 335�??352 (1996). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Degen, I. Fischer, and W. Els�er, �??Thermally induced local gain suppression in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3352�??3354 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. F. Zernike, �??The concept of degree of coherence and its applications to optical problems,�?? Physica 5, 785�??795 (1938). [CrossRef]
  22. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of optics, 7th Edition (Cambridge Press, 1999).
  23. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, London, 1983).
  24. Q. Lin and L.Wang, �??Generation of partially coherent laser beam directly from spatial-temporal phase modulated optical resonators,�?? J. Modern Opt. 50, 743�??754 (2003).
  25. S. V. Kukhlevsky and L. Kozma, �??Optical characteristics of pulsed capillary gas lasers with waveguide resonators,�?? Opt. Commun. 115, 425�??428 (1995). [CrossRef]
  26. R. Tommasini, S. Insam, and E. Fill, �??Coherence properties of an amplified spontaneous emission laser: experiments on a 10 Hz vacuum-ultraviolet H2-laser,�?? Opt. Commun. 180, 277�??283 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited