OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 3 — Feb. 7, 2005
  • pp: 1049–1054

Optical functions of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 films determined by multi-sample and multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

Charles K.F. Ho, K. Pita, N.Q. Ngo, and C.H. Kam  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 3, pp. 1049-1054 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (371 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Thin films of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2, 0≤x≤0.4, were fabricated via the sol-gel technique. Many applications of optics and photonics can benefit from the knowledge of the optical dispersion relationship of this ubiquitous binary ceramic material. The optical properties of the homogeneous and amorphous silica-based films were derived by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) with a multi-sample and multi-angle technique. The physical model used in SE has been rigorously verified. A simple, yet reliable, method is described to produce a dispersion-composition surface for visualizing, and hence, predicting refractive indices of the films. The Sellmeier model was effectively used to describe the optical dispersion properties of the GeO2:SiO2 films for a range of wavelengths from 210 to 1700 nm. Dispersion parameters were determined to evaluate the change in the compositional-dependent dispersion characteristics. In addition, the material dispersion coefficient and zero-dispersion wavelength were found to vary with x.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3130) Integrated optics : Integrated optics materials
(160.2750) Materials : Glass and other amorphous materials
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(160.6060) Materials : Solgel
(310.0310) Thin films : Thin films

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: December 6, 2004
Revised Manuscript: February 3, 2005
Published: February 7, 2005

Charles Ho, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo, and C. H. Kam, "Optical functions of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 films determined by multi-sample and multi-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry," Opt. Express 13, 1049-1054 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. C. Busacca and D. Faccio, "Electro-optic dynamics in thermally poled Ge core doped silica fibre," Electron. Lett. 39, 28-9 (2003). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Matsumoto, T. Fujiwara and A. J. Ikushima, "Large second-order optical nonlinearity in Ge-doped silica glass," Opt. Mater. 18, 19-22 (2001). [CrossRef]
  3. C. Strohhofer, S. Capecchi, J. Fick, A. Martucci, G. Brusatin and M. Guglielmi, "Active optical properties of erbium-doped GeO2-based sol-gel planar waveguides," Thin Solid Films 326, 99-105 (1998). [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, C. K. F. Ho, N. Q. Ngo, L. P. Zuo and S. Takahashi, "Low optical loss germanosilicate planar waveguides by low-pressure inductively coupled plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 368, 183-188 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Y. Zhang, K. Pita, S. C. Tjin, C. H. Kam, L. P. Zuo and S. Takahashi, "Laser-induced ultraviolet absorption and refractive index changes in Ge-B-SiO2 planar waveguides by inductively coupled plasmaenhanced chemical vapor deposition," Chem. Phys. Lett. 379, 534-538 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. A. B. Djurisic, Y. Chan and E. H. Li, "Progress in the room-temperature optical functions of semiconductors," Mat. Sci. Eng. R 38, 237-293 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam and W. Paulson, "Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3323-3336 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. C. K. F. Ho, H. S. Djie, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo and C. H. Kam, "Sintering and porosity control of (x)GeO2:(1-x)SiO2 sol-gel derived films for optoelectronic applications," Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 7, 96-8 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Busani, H. Plantier, R. A. B. Devine, C. Hernandez and Y. Campidelli, "Growth kinetics and physical characterisation of Si1-xGexO2 films obtained by plasma assisted oxidation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 254, 80-88 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. D. L. Simpson, R. T. Croswell, A. Reisman, D. Temple and C. K. Williams, "Planarization processes and applications - I. Undoped GeO2-SiO2 glasses," J. Electrochem. Soc. 146, 3860-3871 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow loss high delta silica germania planar waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. D.-G. Chen, B. G. Potter and J. H. Simmons, "GeO2-SiO2 thin films for planar waveguide applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 178, 135-47 (1994). [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Y. Huang, A. Sarkar and P. C. Schultz, "Relationship between composition, density and refractive index for germania silica glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 27, 29-37 (1978). [CrossRef]
  14. C. K. F. Ho, D. C. L. Gwee, Rajni, K. Pita, N. Q. Ngo and C. H. Kam, "Planar optical waveguides fabricated by sol-gel derived inorganic silicate glass," presented at the 11th European Conference on Intergrated Optics 2003, Prague, Czech Republic, April 2-4, 2003. [PubMed]
  15. S. P. Mukherjee and S. K. Sharma, "Structural studies of gels and gel-glasses in the SiO2-GeO2 system using vibrational spectroscopy," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 69, 806-10 (1986). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Scholze, Glass : nature, structure, and properties (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).
  17. R. R. A. Syms and A. S. Holmes, "Deposition of thick silica-titania sol-gel films on Si substrates," J. Non-Cryst. Solids. 170, 223-33 (1994). [CrossRef]
  18. W. Que, Y. Zhou, Y. L. Lam, Y. C. Chan, Y. W. Chen, S. L. Ng, C. Y. Liaw and C. H. Kam, "Fabrication of composite sol-gel optical channel waveguides by laser writing lithography," presented at the Optical Engineering for Sensing and Nanotechnology (ICOSN '99), Yokohama, Japan, 16-18 June, 1999.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited