OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 6 — Mar. 21, 2005
  • pp: 2032–2039

Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers

Tobias Gensty, Wolfgang Elsäßer, and Christian Mann  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 6, pp. 2032-2039 (2005)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPEX.13.002032


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (158 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present investigations of the the relative intensity noise (RIN) of a quantum cascade laser (QC) laser in continuous wave operation. We analyze the intensity noise properties in terms of the relative intensity noise (RIN). In contrast to conventional interband semiconductor diode lasers we obtain a different scaling behavior of RIN with increasing optical output power for QC lasers. From a semiclassical noise model we find that this result is due to the cascaded active regions each incorporating three laser levels, and is therefore a particular feature of QC lasers.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3070) Lasers and laser optics : Infrared and far-infrared lasers
(140.5960) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers
(270.2500) Quantum optics : Fluctuations, relaxations, and noise

ToC Category:
Research Papers

History
Original Manuscript: January 11, 2005
Revised Manuscript: March 3, 2005
Published: March 21, 2005

Citation
Tobias Gensty, Wolfgang Els�er, and Christian Mann, "Intensity noise properties of quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 13, 2032-2039 (2005)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-6-2032


Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. F. T. Arecchi, Laser Handbook (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1972).
  2. H. Haken, Laser Theory Vol. XXXV/2C. Encyclopedia of Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1970).
  3. J. Woerdman, M. V. Exter, and N. V. Druten, �??Quantum noise of small lasers,�?? Adv. in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 47, 205-248 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. H. Hofmann and O. Hess, �??Coexistence of thermal noise and squeezing in the intensity fluctuations of small laser diodes,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1926-1933 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Poizat and P. Grangier, �??Quantum noise of laser diodes,�?? J. Mod. Optics 47, 2841-2856 (2000).
  6. J.-L. Vey, C. Degen, K. Auen, and W. Els�er, �??Quantum noise and polarization properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,�?? Phys. Rev. A 60, 3284-3295 (1999). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Yamamoto, �??AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor-lasers. 1. Theoretical-analysis,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 34-46 (1983). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Yamamoto, S. Saito, and T. Mukai, �??AM and FM quantum noise in semiconductor-lasers. 2. Comparison of theoretical and experimental results for AlGaAs lasers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 47-58 (1983). [CrossRef]
  9. K. Vahala and A. Yariv, �??Semiclassical theory of noise in semiconductor-lasers. 1.,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1096-1101 (1983) [CrossRef]
  10. K. Vahala and A. Yariv, �??Semiclassical theory of noise in semiconductor-lasers. 2.,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1102-1109 (1983). [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Li and M. Xiao, �??Generation and applications of amplitude-sqeezed states of light from semiconducctor diode lasers,�?? Opt. Express 2, 110-117 (1998), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-3-110">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-2-3-110</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and R. H. Richardson, �??Photon number squeezed states in semiconductor-lasers,�?? Science 255, 1219-1224 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. C. Buchler, E. H. Huntington, C. C. Harb, and T. C. Ralph, �??Feedback control of laser intensity noise,�?? Phys. Rev. A 57, 1286-1294 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Gantsog, G. M. Meyer, M. O. Scully, and H. Walther, �??Dynamic control of micromaser and laser emission from driven three-level atoms,�?? Opt. Commun. 124, 579-594 (1996). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Orszag, S. Y. Zhu, J. Bergou, and M. O. Scully, �??Noise-reduction, lasing without inversion, and pump statistics in coherently prepared lambda quantum-beat media,�?? Phys. Rev. A 45, 4872-4878 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. M. Gheri and D. F. Walls, �??Sub-shot noise lasers without inversion,�?? Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3428-3431 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, �??Quantum cascade laser,�?? Science 264, 553-556 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. Mann, Q. K. Yang, F. Fuchs,W. Bronner, R. Kiefer, K. Khler, H. Schneider, R. Korrmann, H. Fischer, T. Gensty, and W. Els�er, �??Quantum Cascade Lasers for the mid-infrared spectral range: Devices and applications,�?? in B. Kramer, ed., Adv. in Solid State Phys. 43, 351-368 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2003). [CrossRef]
  19. J. Faist, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, �??High-power continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-34, 336-343 (1998). [CrossRef]
  20. C. Mann, Q. K. Yang, F. Fuchs, W. Bronner, and K. Köhler, �??Continuous-wave operation of 5 µm quantum cascade lasers with high-reflection coated facets,�?? Electron. Lett. 39, 1590-1592 (2003). [CrossRef]
  21. J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, J. David, and M. Razeghi, �??High-power continuous-wave operation of a 6 µm quantum-cascade laser at room temperature,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3397-3399 (2003). [CrossRef]
  22. The quantum cascade laser structure has been grown by Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik (IAF), Tullastrasse 72, D-79108 Freiburg, Germany.
  23. R. Köhler, C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, �??Single-mode tunable, pulsed, and continuous wave quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers at λ ~= 4.6�??4.7 µm,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1092-1094 (2000). [CrossRef]
  24. H.-A. Bachor, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics (WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto , 1998).
  25. F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, and E. A. Whittaker, �??Quantum cascade lasers: Ultra-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-38, 511-532 (2002). [CrossRef]
  26. T. Gensty, J. von Staden, and W. Els�er, �??Investigations on the generation of light with sub-shot intensity noise with quantum cascade lasers,�?? in Fluctuations and Noise in Photonics and Quantum Optics II, P. Heszler, D. Abbott, J. R. Gea-Banacloche, and Ph. R. Hemmer, eds., Proc. SPIE 5468, 191-197 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. T. Mukai and Y. Yamamoto, �??AM Quantum noise in 1.3 µm InGaAsP lasers,�?? Electron. Lett. 20, 28-29 (1984). [CrossRef]
  28. I. Joindot, �??Measurements of relative intensity noise (RIN) in semiconductor-lasers,�?? J. Phys. III 2, 1591-1603 (1992).
  29. D. Kuchta, J. Gamelin, J. D.Walker, J. Lin, K. Y. Lau, and J. S. Smith, �??Relative intensity noise of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,�?? Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1194-1196 (1993). [CrossRef]
  30. H. Fischer and M. Tacke, �??High-frequency intensity noise of lead-salt diode-lasers,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1824-1830 (1991). [CrossRef]
  31. H. Haug, �??Quantum-mechanical rate equations for semiconductor lasers,�?? Phys. Rev. 184, 338-348 (1969). [CrossRef]
  32. F. Koyama, K. Morito, and K. Iga, �??Intensity noise and polarization stability of GaAlAs-GaAs surface emitting lasers,�?? IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-27, 1410-1416 (1991). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited