OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 6 — Mar. 21, 2005
  • pp: 2153–2159

Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses

Guanghao Zhu, James van Howe, Michael Durst, Warren Zipfel, and Chris Xu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 6, pp. 2153-2159 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (121 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We study and demonstrate the technique of simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses, with the aim to improve the signal-to-background ratio in multiphoton imaging. This concept is realized by spatially separating spectral components of pulses into a “rainbow beam” and recombining these components only at the spatial focus of the objective lens. Thus, temporal pulse width becomes a function of distance, with the shortest pulse width confined to the spatial focus. We developed analytical expressions to describe this method and experimentally demonstrated the feasibility. The concept of simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses has the great potential to significantly reduce the background excitation in multiphoton microscopy, which fundamentally limits the imaging depth in highly scattering biological specimens.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: December 16, 2004
Revised Manuscript: February 23, 2005
Published: March 21, 2005

Guanghao Zhu, James van Howe, Michael Durst, Warren Zipfel, and Chris Xu, "Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing of femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 13, 2153-2159 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. Denk, K. R. Delaney, A. Gelperin, D. Kleinfeld, B. W. Strawbridge, D. W. Tank, and R. Yuste, �??Anatomical and functional imaging of neurons using 2-photon laser microscopy,�?? J. Neuroscience Methods, 54, 161-162 (1994). [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Squirrell, D. L. Wokosin, J. G. White, and B. D. Bavister, �??Long-term two-photon fluorescence imaging of mammalian embryos without compromising viability,�?? Nature Biotechnol. 17, 763-767 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams, R. Christie, A. Y. Nikitin, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, �??Live tissue intrinsic emission microscopy using multi-photon intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation,�?? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, 7075-7080 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Theer, M. T. Hasan, and W. Denk, "Two-photon imaging to a depth 1000um in living brains by use of Ti:Al2O3 regenerative amplifier,�?? Opt. Lett. 28, 1022-1024 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. During our research work of temporal focusing, we become aware, through the reviewing process, that a manuscript was submitted on a similar concept for wide field imaging. D. Oron, E. Tal and Y. Silberberg, �??Scanningless depth-resolved microscopy,�?? Opt. Express 13, 1468-1476 (2005), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-5-1468.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-5-1468.</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. A. Haus, Waves and fields in optoelectronics, (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984), Chap 4.
  7. O. E. Martinez, �??Grating and prism compressor in the case of finite beam size,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. 3, 929-934, 1986. [CrossRef]
  8. C. Xu, J. Guild, W. W. Webb and W. Denk, �??Determination of absolute two-photon cross sections by in situ second order autocorrelations,�?? Opt. Lett. 20, 2372-2374 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G.J. Brakenhoff, J. Squier, T. Norris, A.C. Bliton W.H. Wade and B. Athey, �??Real-time two-photon confocal microscopy using a femtosecond amplified Ti:sapphire system,�?? J. Microsc. 181, 253-259 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited