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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 7 — Apr. 4, 2005
  • pp: 2419–2426

Interferometric amplitude apodization of integrated gratings

T. W. Mossberg, C. Greiner, and D. Iazikov  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 7, pp. 2419-2426 (2005)

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Modern photolithography with its sub-hundred-nanometer-scale resolution and cm-scale spatial coherence provides for the creation of powerful waveguide diffractive structures useful as integrated spectral filters, multiplexers, spatial signal routers, interconnects, etc. Application of such structures is facilitated by a lithographically friendly means of amplitude apodization, which allows for programming of general spectral and spatial transfer functions. We describe here an approach to implementing flexible binary-etch-compatible diffractive amplitude control based on the decomposition of diffractive structures into subregions each of whose diffractive contours are spatially positioned so as to interferometrically control the net diffractive amplitude and phase of the subregion. The present approach is uniquely powerful because it allows for substantial decoupling of amplitude and phase apodization.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1950) Diffraction and gratings : Diffraction gratings
(130.2790) Integrated optics : Guided waves
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(230.1480) Optical devices : Bragg reflectors
(230.7380) Optical devices : Waveguides, channeled

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: February 22, 2005
Revised Manuscript: March 11, 2005
Published: April 4, 2005

T. Mossberg, C. Greiner, and D. Iazikov, "Interferometric amplitude apodization of integrated gratings," Opt. Express 13, 2419-2426 (2005)

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  1. C. Greiner, D. Iazikov, and T. W. Mossberg, �??Lithographically-fabricated planar holographic Bragg reflectors,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 136-145 (2004). [CrossRef]
  2. J. L. Rebola and A. V. T. Cartaxo, �??Performance optimization of Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating filters in WDM systems,�?? J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1537-1544 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. T. Komukai, K. Tamura, and M. Nakazawa, �??An efficient 0.04-nm apodized fiber Bragg grating and its application to narrow-band spectral filtering,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 934-936 (1997). [CrossRef]
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  5. D. Wiesmann, C. David, R. Germann, D. Erni, and G. L. Bona, �??Apodized surface-corrugated gratings with varying duty cycles,�?? IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 639-641 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Wiesmann, R. Germann, G. L. Bona, C. David, D. Erni, and H. Jackel, �??Add-drop filter based on apodized surface-corrugated gratings,�?? J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 417-423 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Iazikov, C. Greiner, and T. W. Mossberg, �??Effective gray scale in lithographically scribed planar holographic Bragg reflectors,�?? Appl. Opt. 43, 1149-1153 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. C. Greiner, T. W. Mossberg, and D. Iazikov, �??Bandpass engineering of lithographically-scribed channel-waveguide Bragg gratings,�?? Opt. Lett. 29, 806-808 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. Malo, S. Theriault, D. C. Johnson, F. Bilodeau, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, �??Apodisation of the spectral response of fibre Bragg gratings using a phase mask with variable diffraction efficiency,�?? Electron. Lett. 31, 223 �?? 225 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. H. J. Deyerl, N. Plougmann, J. B. Jensen, F. Floreani, H. R. Sørensen, M. Kristensen, �??Fabrication of Advanced Bragg Gratings with Complex Apodization Profiles by Use of the Polarization Control Method,�?? Appl. Opt. 43, 3513-3522 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ibsen, M. K. Durkin, M. J. Cole, R. I. Laming, �??Sinc-sampled fiber Bragg gratings for identical multiple wavelength operation,�?? Photonics Technology Lett. 10, 842 - 844 (1998). [CrossRef]

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