OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 7 — Apr. 4, 2005
  • pp: 2782–2792

Visual axial PSF of diffractive trifocal lenses

Pedro J. Valle, José E. Oti, Vidal F. Canales, and Manuel P. Cagigal  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 7, pp. 2782-2792 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (839 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The ophthalmic applications of a diffractive trifocal lens design with adjustable add powers and light distribution in the foci are investigated. Axial PSFs of the trifocal lenses are calculated and analyzed as a function of the design parameters and the eye pupil size. The optical performance in actual eyes is also simulated by including the measured ocular wave aberration functions of human eyes in the calculation of transverse and axial PSFs, and Strehl ratio axial variation. The effect of the polychromatic character of natural light has also been considered. The calculus and simulation method of this paper can be applied for the design and analysis of any other kind of diffractive or refractive multifocal contact or intraocular lens.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(330.4460) Vision, color, and visual optics : Ophthalmic optics and devices
(330.7310) Vision, color, and visual optics : Vision

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: January 27, 2005
Revised Manuscript: March 21, 2005
Published: April 4, 2005

Pedro Valle, José Oti, Vidal Canales, and Manuel Cagigal, "Visual axial PSF of diffractive trifocal lenses," Opt. Express 13, 2782-2792 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. L. Cohen, �??Practical design of a bifocal hologram contact lens or intraocular lens,�?? Appl. Opt. 31, 3750-3754 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. L. Cohen, �??Diffractive bifocal lens designs,�?? Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 461-468 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Klein, �??Understanding the diffractive bifocal contact lens,�?? Optom. Vis. Sci. 70, 439-460 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. M. Morris and L. T. Nordan, �??Phakic intraocular lenses,�?? Opt. Photon News, 15 nº 9, 26-31 (2004). <a href="http://www.osa- pn.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPN-15-9-26.">http://www.osa- pn.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPN-15-9-26</a> [CrossRef]
  5. N. Chateau and D. Baude, �??Simulated in situ optical performance of bifocal contact lenses,�?? Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 532-539 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Larsson, C. Beckman, A. Nyström, S. Hård, and J. Sjöstrand, �??Optical properties of diffractive, bifocal, intraocular lenses,�?? Appl. Opt. 31, 2377-84 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Simpson, �??Diffractive multifocal intraocular lens image quality,�?? Appl. Opt. 31, 3621-3626 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. A. Atchison and L. N. Thibos, �??Diffractive properties of the Diffrax bifocal contact lens,�?? Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 13, 186-188 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Pieh , P. Marvan, B. Lackner, G. Hanselmayer, G. Schmidinder, R. Leitgeb, M. Sticker, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, and C. Skorpik, �??Quantitative performance of bifocal and multifocal intraocular lenses in a model eye: point spread function in multifocal intraocular lenses,�?? Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 23-28 (2002). [PubMed]
  10. J. L. Alió, M. Tovalato, F. de la Hoz, P. Claramonte, J.-L. Rodríguez-Prats, and A. Galal, �??Near vision restoration with refractive lens exchange and pseudoaccommodating and multifocal refractive and diffractive intraocular lenses,�?? J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 2494-2503 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Golub and I. Grossinger, �??Diffractive optical elements for biomedical applications.�?? <a href="http://www.holoor.co.il/data/ready2/publications/Biospape.pdf.">http://www.holoor.co.il/data/ready2/publications/Biospape.pdf</a>
  12. Basics and Clinical Science Course Section 3: Optics, Refraction, and Contact Lenses, (American Academy of Ophthalmology, San Francisco, 2002).
  13. M. W. Farn and W. B. Veldkamp, �??Binary Optics�?? in Handbook of Optics Vol. II, M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 8.1-8.19.
  14. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999).
  15. L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schweigerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce members, Standards for Reporting the Optical Aberration of Eyes, Vol 35 of OSA Topics in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2000), pp.232-244.
  16. J. A. Martin and A. Roorda, �??Predicting and assessing visual performance with multizone bifocal contact lenses,�?? Optom. Vis. Sci. 80, 812-819 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. P. Cagigal, V. F. Canales, J. F. Castejón-Mochón, P. M. Prieto, N. López-Gil, and P. Artal, �??Statistical description of wave-front aberration in the human eye,�?? Opt. Lett. 27, 37-39 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and R. A: Applegate, �??Accuracy and precision of objective refraction from wavefront aberrations,�?? J. Vis. 4, 329-351 (2004). <a href="http://journalofvision.org/4/4/9/. ">http://journalofvision.org/4/4/9/.</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. D. Marsack, L. N. Thibos, and R. A. Applegate, �??Metrics of optical quality derived from wave aberrations predict visual performance,�?? J. Vis. 4, 322-328 (2004). <a href="http://journalofvision.org/4/4/8/."> http://journalofvision.org/4/4/8/</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Navarro, M. Ferro, P. Artal, and I. Miranda, �??Modulation transfer functions of eye implanted with intraocular lens,�?? Appl. Opt. 32, 6359-6367 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. N. Thibos, Y. Ming, X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, �??The chromatic eye: a new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans,�?? Appl. Opt. 31, 3594-3600 (1992). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MOV (83 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (23 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (896 KB)     

« Previous Article

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited