OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 13, Iss. 8 — Apr. 18, 2005
  • pp: 3150–3165

Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films

Shih-Hui Chang, Stephen K. Gray, and George C. Schatz  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 13, Issue 8, pp. 3150-3165 (2005)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (404 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Extensive 3-D finite-difference time-domain simulations are carried out to elucidate the nature of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and localized surface plasmon polaritons (LSPs) generated by nanoscale holes in thin metallic films interacting with light. Both isolated nanoholes and square arrays of nanoholes in gold films are considered. For isolated nanoholes, we expand on an earlier discussion of Yin et al. [Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467–469 (2004)] on the origins of fringe patterns in the film and the role of near-field scanning optical microscope probe interactions. The associated light transmission of a single nanohole is enhanced when a LSP excitation of the nanohole itself is excited. Periodic arrays of nanoholes exhibit more complex behavior, with light transmission peaks exhibiting distinct minima and maxima that can be very well described with Fano lineshape models. This behavior is correlated with the coupling of SPP Bloch waves and more directly transmitted waves through the holes.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(240.0310) Optics at surfaces : Thin films
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(260.3160) Physical optics : Interference
(260.3910) Physical optics : Metal optics

ToC Category:
Research Papers

Original Manuscript: January 26, 2005
Revised Manuscript: March 17, 2005
Published: April 18, 2005

Shih-Hui Chang, Stephen Gray, and George Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-3165 (2005)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998). [CrossRef]
  2. Focus Issue: Extraordinary light transmission through sub-wavelength structured surfaces, Opt. Express 12, pp. 3618-3706 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3618">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3618</a>. [PubMed]
  3. L. Yin, V.K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S.K. Gray, G.C. Schatz, D.E. Brown, and C.W. Kimball, "Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467-469 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. R. Wannemacher, "Plasmon-supported transmission of light through nanometric holes in metallic thin films," Opt. Commun. 195, 107-118 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Prikulis, P. Hanarp, L. Olofsson, D. Sutherland, and M. Kall, "Optical spectroscopy of nanometric holes in thin gold films," Nano Lett. 4, 1003-2007 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Degiron, H.J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, and T.W. Ebbesen "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. M.M.J. Treacy, "Dynamical diffraction in metallic optical gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606-608 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sarrazin, J.-P. Vigneron, and J.-M. Vigoureux, "Role of Wood anomalies in optical properties of thin metallic films with a bidimensional array of subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 67, 085415 (1-8) (2003). [CrossRef]
  9. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779- 6782 (1998). [CrossRef]
  10. H.J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004), <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3629">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-16-3629</a>. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. Salomon, F. Grillot, A.V. Zayats, and F. de Fornel, "Near-field distribution of optical transmission of periodic subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1110-1117 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S.A. Darmanyan and A.V. Zayats, "Light tunneling via resonant surface plasmon polariton states and the enhanced transmission of periodically nanostructured metal films: An analytical study," Phys. Rev. B 67, 035424(1-7) (2003). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Genet, M.P. van Exter, and J.P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331-336 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. A. Taflove and S.C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-difference Time-Domain Method, Second Edition , (Artech House, Boston, 2000).
  15. S.K. Gray and T. Kupka, "Propagation of light in metallic nanowire arrays: Finite-difference time-domain results for silver cylinders," Phys. Rev. B 68, 045415(1-11) (2003). [CrossRef]
  16. P.B. Johnson and R.W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972). [CrossRef]
  17. G. Guiffaut and K. Mahdjoubi, "A parallel FDTD Algorithm using the MPI library," IEEE Ant. and Prop. Mag. 43, 94-103 (2001). [CrossRef]
  18. D. W. Prather and S. Shi, "Formulation and application of the finite-difference time-domain method for the analysis of axially symmetric diffractive optical elements," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1131-1142 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988).
  20. R.D. Grober, T. Rutherford, and T.D. Harris, "Model approximation for the electromagnetic field of a near-field optical probe," Appl. Optics 19, 3488-3495 (1996). [CrossRef]
  21. G.B. Arfken and H.J. Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, (Academic Press, New York, 1995).
  22. H. Kano, S. Mizuguchi, and Satoshi Kawata, "Excitation of surface-plasmon polaritons by a focused laser beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1381 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. H.A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944). [CrossRef]
  24. C.J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe's theory of diffraction by small holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950).
  25. K.L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L.L. Zhao, and G.C. Schatz, "The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: The influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment," J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668-677 (2003). [CrossRef]
  26. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles, Second Edition (Wiley, New York, 1983) p. 344.
  27. J.D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, Second Edition (Wiley, New York, 1975) pp. 438-441.
  28. A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T.J. Kim, H.J. Lezec, T.W. Ebbesen, P.A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, F.J. Garcia-Vidal, "Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission," Opt. Commun. 200, 1-7 (2001). [CrossRef]
  29. U. Fano, "Effects of Configuration Interaction on Intensities and Phase Shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961). [CrossRef]
  30. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401(1-4) (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. J. M. Steele, C.E. Moran, A. Lee, C.M. Aguirre, and N.J. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys Rev. B 68, 205103(1-7) (2003). [CrossRef]
  32. Q. Cao and P. Lalanne, "Negative Role of Surface Plasmons in the Transmission of Metallic Gratings with Very Narrow Slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 057403(1-4) (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. W. Fan, S. Zhang, B. Minhas, K.J. Malloy, and R.J. Brueck, "Enhanced infrared transmission through subwavelength coaxial metallic arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 033902(1-4) (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited