OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 1 — Jan. 9, 2006
  • pp: 203–215

Detection of early dental caries using polarized Raman spectroscopy

Alex C.-T. Ko, Lin-P’ing Choo-Smith, Mark Hewko, Michael G. Sowa, Cecilia C.S. Dong, and Blaine Cleghorn  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 203-215 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (417 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A new technique based on polarized Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for detecting early dental caries on extracted human teeth. Sound tooth enamel exhibited strong Raman polarization anisotropy whereas early caries consistently showed a lower degree of Raman polarization anisotropy. In particular, for sound enamel, the Raman peak arising from the symmetric ν1 vibration of PO43- at 959 cm-1 is strongly polarized. This is in contrast to the spectra of carious lesions that displayed weaker polarization dependence at 959 cm-1. Such difference in the degree of Raman polarization anisotropy allows for discrimination between early dental caries and sound enamel.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.1850) Medical optics and biotechnology : Dentistry
(170.5660) Medical optics and biotechnology : Raman spectroscopy

ToC Category:
Medical Optics and Biotechnology

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 2 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Alex C.-T. Ko, Lin-P'ing Choo-Smith, Mark Hewko, Michael G. Sowa, Cecilia C. S. Dong, and Blaine Cleghorn, "Detection of early dental caries using polarized Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Express 14, 203-215 (2006)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "Oral health in America: A report of the Surgeon General - executive summary," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD (2000).
  2. G. K. Stookey, R.D. Jackson, A.G. Zandona, and M. Abaloui, "Dental caries diagnosis," Dent. Clin. North Am. 43, 665-677 (1999). [PubMed]
  3. A. Hall, J. M. Girkin, "A review of potential new diagnostic modalities for caries lesions," J. Dent Res. 83, C89-C94 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. M. Girkin, A. F. Hall, S. L. Creanor, "Multi-photon imaging of intact dental tissue," in Proceedings of the 4th Annual Indiana Conference, G.K. Stookey, ed. (Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana 1999) pp. 155-168.
  5. K. Kaneko, K. Matsuyama, S. Nakashima, "Quantification of early carious enamel lesions by using an infrared camera in vitro," in Proceedings of the 4th annual Indiana conference, G. K. Stookey, ed. (Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana 1999) pp. 83-100.
  6. D. A. Crawley, L. Longbottom, B. C. Cole, C. M. Ciesla, D. Arnone, V. P. Wallace, M. Pepper, "Tetrahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry," Caries Res. 37, 352-359 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. B. T. Amaechi, S. M. Higham, A. G. Podoleanu, J. A. Rogers, and D. A. Jackson, "Use of optical coherence tomography for assessment of dental caries: quantitative procedure," J. Oral Rehabil. 28, 1092-1093 (2001). [CrossRef]
  8. A. C.-T. Ko, L. P. Choo-Smith, M. Hewko, L. Leonardi, M. G. Sowa, C. C. S. Dong, P. Williams, and B. Cleghorn, "Ex vivo detection and characterization of early dental caries by optical coherence tomography and Raman spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 031118 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. Hill, and V. Petrou, "Caries detection by diode laser Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 795-799 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. R. S. Jones, G. D. Huynh, G. C. Jones, and D. Fried, "Near-infrared transillumination at 1310-nm for the imaging of early dental decay," Opt. Express 11, 2259-2265 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. M. Bühler, P. Ngaotheppitak, and D. Fried, "Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm," Opt. Express 13, 573-582 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Fried, J. Xie, S. Shafi, J. D. B. Featherstone, T. M. Breunig, and C. Le, "Imaging carious lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 618-627 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Frisk, R. M. Ikeda, D. B. Chase, and J. F. Rabolt, "Determination of the molecular orientation of poly(propylene terephthalate) fibers using polarized Raman spectroscopy: a comparison of methods," Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 279-286 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Tsuboi, J. M. Benevides, P. Bondre, and G. J. Thomas, Jr. "Structural details of the thermophilic filamentous bacteriophage PH75 determined by polarized Raman microspectroscopy," Biochem. 44, 4861-4869 (2005). [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, E. Einarsson, and S. Maruyama, "Polarization dependence of resonant Raman scattering from vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube films," Phys. Rev. B 71, 085403 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. H. Tsuda and J. Arends, "Orientational micro-Raman spectroscopy on hydroxyapatite single crystals and human enamel crystallites," J. Dent. Res. 73, 1703-1710 (1994). [PubMed]
  17. G. LeRoy, G. Penel, N. LeRoy, and E. F. Brès, "Human tooth enamel: a Raman polarized approach," Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1030-1034 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. C. Bremard, P. Dhamelincourt, J. Laureynes, G. Turrell, "The effect of high-numerical-aperture objectives on polarization measurements in micro-Raman spectrometry," Appl. Spectrosc. 39, 1036-1039 (1985). [CrossRef]
  19. C. M. Pine and J. J. ten Bosch, "Dynamics of and diagnostic methods for detecting small carious lesions," Caries Res. 30, 381-388 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Friedman, and M. I. Marcus, "Transillumination of the oral cavity with the use of fiber optics," J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 80, 801-809 (1970). [PubMed]
  21. A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr, "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited