OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 13 — Jun. 26, 2006
  • pp: 6172–6177

Negative refraction and sub-wavelength imaging through surface waves on structured perfect conductor surfaces

Zhichao Ruan and Min Qiu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 13, pp. 6172-6177 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (318 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report that negative refraction can be achieved through surface waves on a metal surface with an array of drilled holes. Using a rigorous full-vectorial three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method, we also demonstrate the sub-wavelength imaging of a point dipole source by a slab of such a structure.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.2560) Optical design and fabrication : Propagating methods
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 12, 2006
Revised Manuscript: June 13, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: June 13, 2006
Published: June 26, 2006

Zhichao Ruan and Min Qiu, "Negative refraction and sub-wavelength imaging through surface waves on structured perfect conductor surfaces," Opt. Express 14, 6172-6177 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968). [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Notomi, "Theory of light propagation in strongly modulated photonic crystals: Refractionlike behavior in the vicinity of the photonic band gap," Phys. Rev. B 62, 10696-10705 (2000). [CrossRef]
  5. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and S. C. M., "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. . P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Shridar, "Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thyl´en, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolf, "Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission Resonances on Metallic Gratings with Very Narrow Slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintiinger, E. Devaux, and T.W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimiching Surface Plasmons with Structured Surface," Science 305, 847-848 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S97-S101 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental Verification of Designer Surface Plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Qiu, "Photonic band structures for surface waves on structured metal surfaces," Opt. Express 13, 7583 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. J. Garćıa de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, "Electromagnetic Surface Modes in Structured Perfect-Conductor Surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo, J. Dolado, L. Martin-Moreno, J. Bravo-Abad, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Enhanced millimeter-wave transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," IEEE Trans. on Antennas.Propag. 53, 1897 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. F. J. Garćıa de Abajo, J. J. Sáenz, I. Campillo, and J. S. Dolado, "Site and lattice resonances in metallic hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 7-18 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House INC, Norwood, 2000).
  22. Z. Y. Li and L. L. Lin, "Evaluation of lensing in photonic crystal slabs exhibiting negative refraction," Phy. Rev. B 68, 245110 (2003). [CrossRef]
  23. S. He, Z. C. Ruan, L. Chen, and J. Q. Shen, "Focusing properties of a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction," Phys. Rev. B 70, 115113 (2004). [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Berenger, "Three-Dimensional Perfectly Matched Layer for the Absorption of Electromagnetic Waves," J. Comput. Phys. 127, 363-379 (1996). [CrossRef]
  25. H. Shin and S. Fan, "All-Angle Negative Refraction for Surface Plasmon Waves Using a Metal-Dielectric-Metal Structure," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96,073907 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999).
  27. S. S. Xiao, M. Qiu, Z. C. Ruan, and S. L. He, "Influence of the surface termination to the point imaging by a photonic crystal slab with negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4269 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited