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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 14 — Jul. 10, 2006
  • pp: 6434–6443

22-nm immersion interference lithography

T. M. Bloomstein, M. F. Marchant, S. Deneault, D. E. Hardy, and M. Rothschild  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 14, pp. 6434-6443 (2006)

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Immersion interference lithography was used to pattern gratings with 22-nm half pitch. This ultrahigh resolution was made possible by using 157-nm light, a sapphire coupling prism with index 2.09, and a 30-nm-thick immersion fluid with index 1.82. The thickness was controlled precisely by spin-casting the fluid rather than through mechanical means. The photoresist was a diluted version of a 193-nm material, which had a 157-nm index of 1.74. An analysis of the trade-off between fluid index, absorption coefficient, gap size and throughput indicated that, among the currently available materials, employing a high-index but absorbing fluid is preferable to using a highly transparent but low-index immersion media.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.3960) Imaging systems : Microlithography
(120.4820) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical systems

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: May 11, 2006
Revised Manuscript: June 23, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: June 23, 2006
Published: July 10, 2006

T. M. Bloomstein, Michael F. Marchant, Sandra Deneault, Dennis E. Hardy, and Mordechai Rothschild, "22-nm immersion interference lithography," Opt. Express 14, 6434-6443 (2006)

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