OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 15 — Jul. 24, 2006
  • pp: 6588–6594

Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields

Michael Rosenbluh, Vishal Shah, Svenja Knappe, and John Kitching  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 15, pp. 6588-6594 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (243 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate the excitation and low-noise differential detection of a coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance with two modulated optical fields with orthogonal circular polarizations. When a microwave phase delay of λ/4 is introduced in the optical path of one of the fields, the difference in the power transmitted through the cell in each polarization shows a narrow, dispersive resonance. The differential detection allows a high degree of suppression of laser-induced noise and will enable nearly shot-noise-limited operation of atomic frequency references and magnetometers based on CPT.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(020.1670) Atomic and molecular physics : Coherent optical effects
(020.3690) Atomic and molecular physics : Line shapes and shifts
(270.1670) Quantum optics : Coherent optical effects

ToC Category:
Atomic and Molecular Physics

Original Manuscript: May 24, 2006
Revised Manuscript: July 6, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: July 10, 2006
Published: July 24, 2006

Michael Rosenbluh, Vishal Shah, Svenja Knappe, and John Kitching, "Differentially detected coherent population trapping resonances excited by orthogonally polarized laser fields," Opt. Express 14, 6588-6594 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Arimondo, "Coherent population trapping in laser spectroscopy," Prog. Opt. 35, 257-354 (1996). [CrossRef]
  2. S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, "Experimental-Method for Observation of Rf Transitions and Laser Beat Resonances in Oriented Na Vapor," Nuovo Cimento 36, 5-20 (1976). [CrossRef]
  4. E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, "Non-Absorbing Atomic Coherences by Coherent 2-Photon Transitions in a 3-Level Optical-Pumping," Lett. Nuovo Cim. 17, 333-338 (1976). [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Buckle, S. M. Barnett, P. L. Knight, M. A. Lauder, and D. T. Pegg, "Atomic Interferometers - phase dependence in multilevel atomic transitions," Opt. Act. 33, 1129-1149 (1986). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kosachiov, B. Matisov, and Y. Rozhdestvensky, "Coherent Population Trapping - Sensitivity of an Atomic System to the Relative Phase of Exciting Fields," Opt. Commun. 85, 209-212 (1991). [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Lukin, S. F. Yelin, M. Fleishhauer, and M. O. Scully, "Quantum interference effects induced by interacting dark resonances," Phys. Rev. A 60, 3225-3228 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. W. Maichen, R. Gaggl, E. Korsunsky, and L. Windholz, "Observation of Phase-Dependent Coherent Population Trapping in Optically Closed Atomic Systems," Europhys. Lett. 31, 189-194 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. E. A. Korsunsky, N. Leinfellner, A. Huss, S. Baluschev, and L. Windholz, "Phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. A 59, 2302-2305 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. C. Affolderbach, S. Knappe, R. Wynands, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in a standing wave," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043810 (2002). [CrossRef]
  11. M. Zhu, Patent No. 6,359,916 (2002).
  12. M. Stahler, R. Wynands, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. Taichenachev, and V. Yudin, "Coherent population trapping resonances in thermal Rb-85 vapor: D-1 versus D-2 line excitation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1472-1474 (2002). [CrossRef]
  13. M. Zhu, "High contrast signal in a coherent population trapping based atomic frequency standard application," presented at the IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium and 17th European Frequency and Time Forum, Tampa, FL, 2003 (unpublished).
  14. Y. Y. Jau, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, A. M. Braun, M. V. Romalis, and W. Happer, "Intense, narrow atomic-clock resonances," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 110801 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. V. Kargapoltsev, J. Kitching, L. Hollberg, A. V. Taichenachev, V. L. Velichansky, and V. I. Yudin, "High-contrast dark resonance in sigma(+)-sigma(-) optical field," Laser Phys. Lett 1, 495-499 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, "Push-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160802 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. B. Post, Y. Y. Jau, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, "Amplitude- versus frequency-modulated pumping light for coherent population trapping resonances at high buffer-gas pressure," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033417 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. T. Zanon, S. Guerandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, "High contrast Ramsey fringes with coherent-population-trapping pulses in a double lambda atomic system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 193002 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, "On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1 line of Rb-87," JETP Letters 82, 398-403 (2005). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Kitching, S. Knappe, N. Vukicevic, L. Hollberg, R. Wynands, and W. Weidmann, "A microwave frequency reference based on VCSEL-driven dark line resonances in Cs vapor," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1313-1317 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Vanier, "Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review," Appl. Phys. B 81, 421-442 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. T. Haslwanter, H. Ritsch, J. Cooper, and P. Zoller, "Laser-Noise-Induced Population Fluctuations in 2-Level and 3-Level Systems," Phys. Rev. A 38, 5652-5659 (1988). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. C. Camparo, "Conversion of laser phase noise to amplitude noise in an optically thick vapor," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1177-1186 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. S. Knappe, V. Shah, P. D. D. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, "A microfabricated atomic clock," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1460-1462 (2004). [CrossRef]
  25. A. Nagel, L. Graf, A. Naumov, E. Mariotti, V. Biancalana, D. Meschede, and R. Wynands, "Experimental realization of coherent dark-state magnetometers," Europhys. Lett. 44, 31-36 (1998). [CrossRef]
  26. P. D. D. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. A. Liew, and J. Moreland, "Chip-scale atomic magnetometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-6411 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. A. F. Huss, R. Lammegger, C. Neureiter, E. A. Korsunsky, and L. Windholz, "Phase correlation of laser waves with arbitrary frequency spacing," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 223601 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. H. Goldstein, Classical Mechanics, 2nd ed. (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1980).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited