OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 22 — Oct. 30, 2006
  • pp: 10765–10778

Integrated free-space optical interconnect fabricated in planar optics using chirped microlens arrays

Frank Wippermann, Daniela Radtke, Martin Amberg, and Stefan Sinzinger  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 22, pp. 10765-10778 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1004 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We present a compact design for an integrated interconnect based on a hybrid imaging setup combining microchannel and conventional imaging. Within this setup the conventional imaging is performed by an aluminum-coated spherical lens. The aberrations introduced by this spherical mirror to the channels of the interconnect can be compensated by channel-wise adapted microlenses located at the in- and output interfaces. These microlenses are used for collimating or refocusing the beams, respectively. Within this paper we present the design of the microlens array with individually shaped lenses referred to as chirped mircolens array (cMLA) based on numerical optimization and the use of fitting functions. Further on we focus on the fabrication of the chirped microlens arrays by laser lithography and first experimental results of coupling efficiencies of singlemode as well as multimode fibers for the realized prototypes.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems
(220.1000) Optical design and fabrication : Aberration compensation
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(350.3950) Other areas of optics : Micro-optics

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: September 13, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: October 8, 2006
Published: October 30, 2006

Frank Wippermann, Daniela Radtke, Martin Amberg, and Stefan Sinzinger, "Integrated free-space optical interconnect fabricated in planar optics using chirped microlens arrays," Opt. Express 14, 10765-10778 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. S. Hinton, "Architectural considerations for photonic switching networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 6, 1209-1226 (1988). [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Lohmann, "Image formation of dilute arrays for optical information processing," Opt. Commun. 86, 365-370 (1991). [CrossRef]
  3. F. B. McCormick, "Free space optical interconnection techniques," Photonics in Switching, J. E. Midwinter, ed., (Academic Boston, 1993).
  4. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, "Variations of hybrid imaging concept for optical computing applications," Optical Computing in Vol. 10 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America,Washington, D.C.), 183-185 (1995).
  5. J. Jahns and A. Huang, "Planar integration of free space optical components," Appl. Opt. 28, 1602-1605 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Duparré, F. Wippermann, P. Dannberg, and A. Reimann, "Chirped arrays of refractive ellipsoidal microlenses for aberration correction under oblique incidence," Opt. Express 13, 10539-10551 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Wippermann, J. Duparré, P. Schreiber, and P. Dannberg "Design and fabrication of a chirped array of refractive ellipsoidal micro-lenses for an apposition eye camera objective," in Optical Design and Engineering II; L. Mazuray and R. Wartmann, eds., Proc. SPIE 5962 59622C (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sinzinger and J. Jahns, "Integrated micro-optical imaging system with high interconnection capacity fabricated in planar optics," Appl. Opt. 36, 4729-4735 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. W. B. Joyce, B. C. DeLoach, "Alignment of Gaussian Beams," Appl. Opt. 23, 4187-4196 (1984). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Yariv, "A coupled mode theory for Guided-Wave Optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 919-933 (1973). [CrossRef]
  11. ZEMAX Instruction Manual (2004)
  12. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968).
  13. G. N. Lawrence, "Optical Modelling," Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, R.R. Shannon and J.C. Wyant, eds., (Academic, New York, 1992), Vol. 11.
  14. D. Daly, R. F. Stevens, M. C. Hutley, and N. Davies, "The manufacture of microlenses by melting photo resist," Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 759-766 (1990). [CrossRef]
  15. M. T. Gale, G. K. Lang, J. M. Raynor, H. Schuetz, "Fabrication of micro optical elements by laser beam writing in photo resist," in Micro-Optics II; A. M. Verga Scheggi; ed., Proc. SPIE 1506, 65-70 (1991). [CrossRef]
  16. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, R. E. Kunz, and G. L. Bona, "Laser writing and replication of continous-relief Fresnel microlenses," OSA Technical Digest Series: Diffractive Optics Vol.  11, 306-309 (1994).
  17. P. Dannberg, G. Mann, L. Wagner, and A. Braeuer, "Polymer UV- molding for micro-optical systems and O/Eintegration," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics; S. H. Lee and E. G. Johnson, eds., Proc. SPIE 4179, 137 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited