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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 25 — Dec. 11, 2006
  • pp: 12028–12038

PAM-4 Signaling over VCSELs with 0.13µm CMOS Chip Technology

J.E. Cunningham, D. Beckman, Xuezhe Zheng, Dawei Huang, T. Sze, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 25, pp. 12028-12038 (2006)

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We present results for VCSEL based links operating PAM-4 signaling using a commercial 0.13µm CMOS technology. We perform a complete link analysis of the Bit Error Rate, Q factor, random and deterministic jitter by measuring waterfall curves versus margins in time and amplitude. We demonstrate that VCSEL based PAM–4 can match or even improve performance over binary signaling under conditions of a bandwidth limited, 100meter multi-mode optical link at 5Gbps. We present the first sensitivity measurements for optical PAM-4 and compare it with binary signaling. Measured benefits are reconciled with information theory predictions.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.4510) Fiber optics and optical communications : Optical communications
(200.4650) Optics in computing : Optical interconnects

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: August 28, 2006
Revised Manuscript: November 21, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: November 21, 2006
Published: December 11, 2006

J. E. Cunningham, D. Beckman, Xuezhe Zheng, Dawei Huang, T. Sze, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, "PAM-4 Signaling over VCSELs with 0.13µm CMOS Chip Technology," Opt. Express 14, 12028-12038 (2006)

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  1. R. Farjad-Rad, C.-K. K. Yang and M. A. Horowitz, "A 0.3- mm CMOS 8-GS/s 4-PAM Serial Link Transceiver," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 757-764, (2000). [CrossRef]
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  13. <other>. We have not factored in the effects from the CMOS circuitry which could be the dominate source of rms jitter and thereby mask out other components that contribute to this metric.</other>
  14. Dawei Huang, "Free Space Optical Interconnect For Computing System- Design, Optimization and Implementation," PhD Thesis, University of California, San Diego, to be published Dec (2006)
  15. Vladimir Stojanovic, "Channel-Limited High-Speed Links: Modeling, Analysis And Design, PhD Thesis, Stanford University," 2004
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