OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 3 — Feb. 6, 2006
  • pp: 1027–1032

Nonlinear optical endoscopy based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a MEMS mirror

Ling Fu, Ankur Jain, Huikai Xie, Charles Cranfield, and Min Gu  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 3, pp. 1027-1032 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (241 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy have enabled functional and morphological in vivo imaging. However, in vivo applications of those techniques to living animals are limited by bulk optics on a bench top. Fortunately, growing functionality of fiber-optic devices and miniaturization of scanning mirrors stimulate the race to develop nonlinear optical endoscopy. In this paper, we report on a prototype of a nonlinear optical endoscope based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber to improve the detection efficiency and a MEMS mirror to steer the light at the fiber tip. The miniaturized fiber-optic nonlinear microscope is characterized by rat esophagus imaging. Line profiles from the rat tail tendon and esophagus prove the potential of the technology in in vivo applications.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(110.2350) Imaging systems : Fiber optics imaging
(180.2520) Microscopy : Fluorescence microscopy

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: December 5, 2005
Revised Manuscript: January 20, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: January 22, 2006
Published: February 6, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Ling Fu, Ankur Jain, Huikai Xie, Charles Cranfield, and Min Gu, "Nonlinear optical endoscopy based on a double-clad photonic crystal fiber and a MEMS mirror," Opt. Express 14, 1027-1032 (2006)

Sort:  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. W. R. Zipfel, R. M. Williams and W. W. Webb, “Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1369-1377 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. J. Campagnola and L. M. Loew, “Second-harmonic imaging microscopy for visualizing biomolecular arrays in cells, tissues and organisms,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 1356-1360 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Helmchen, M. S. Fee, D. W. Tank and W. Denk, “A miniature head-mounted two-photon microscope: High-resolution brain imaging in freely moving animals,” Neuron 31, 903-912 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Bird and M. Gu, “Compact two-photon fluorescence microscope based on a single-mode fiber coupler,” Opt. Lett. 27, 1031-1033 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Bird and M. Gu, “Two-photon fluorescence endoscopy with a micro-optic scanning head,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1552-1554 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiology 92, 3121-3133 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, “In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue,” J. Neurophysiology 91, 1908-1912 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Use of single-mode fiber coupler for second-harmonic-generation microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30, 385-387 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Kim, K. H. Kim, S. Yazdanfar and P. T. C. So, “Optical biopsy in high-speed handheld miniaturized multifocal multiphoton microscopy,” in Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences V, A. Periasamy and P. T. C. So, eds., Proc. SPIE 5700, 14-22 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. B. A. Flusberg, J. C. Jung, E. D. Cocker, E. P. Anderson, and M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo brain imaging using a portable 3.9 gram two-photon fluorescence microendoscope,” Opt. Lett. 30, 2272-2274 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Y. Ye, M. T. Myaing , T. P. Thomas, I. Majoros, A. Koltyar, J. R. Baker, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, and T. B. Norris, “Development of a double-clad photonic crystal fiber based scanning microscope,” in Multiphoton Microscopy in the Biomedical Sciences V , A. Periasamy and P. T. C. So, eds., Proc. SPIE 5700, 23-27 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Nonlinear optical microscopy based on double-clad photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13, 5528-5534 (2005). <a href="http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-14-5528.">http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-14-5528.</a> [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomographic imaging with a CMOS-MEMS micromirror,” Sens. Actuators 103, 237-241 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. H. Xie, A. Jain, T. Xie, Y. Pan, and G. K. Fedder, “A single-crystal silicon-based micromirror with large scanning angle for biomedical applications,” Conference on Lasers and Electro Optics 2003, Baltimore, MD (2003).
  15. P. Tran, D. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, "In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe," Opt. Lett. 29, 1236-1238 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Herz, Y. Chen, A. Aguirre, K. Schneider, P. Hsiung, J. Fujimoto, K. Madden, J. Schmitt, J. Goodnow, and C. Petersen, "Micromotor endoscope catheter for in vivo, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2261-2263 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. D. Aguirre, P. R. Herz, Y. Chen, J. G. Fujimoto, W. Piyawattanametha, L. Fan, S. Hsu, M. Fujino, M. C. Wu, and D. Kopf, “Ultrahigh resolution OCT imaging with a two-dimensional MEMS scanning endoscope,” in Advanced Biomedical and Clinical Diagnostic Systems III, T. Vo-Dinh, W. S. Grundfest , D. A. Benaron, and G. E. Cohn, eds., Proc. SPIE 5692, 277-282 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. M. George, “Optical methods and sensors for in situ histology in surgery and endoscopy,” Min. Invas. Ther. & Allied. Technol. 13, 95-104 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. L. Fu, X. Gan, and M. Gu, “Characterization of the GRIN lens-fiber spacing toward applications in two-photon fluorescence endoscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7270-7274 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Jain, A. Kopa, Y. Pan, G. K. Fedder and H. Xie, “A two-axis electrothermal micromirror for endoscopic optical coherence tomography,” IEEE journal of selected topics in Quantum electronics 10, 636-642 (2004). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (224 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited