OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 4 — Feb. 20, 2006
  • pp: 1487–1496

Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution

Adrian H. Bachmann, Rainer A. Leitgeb, and Theo Lasser  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 4, pp. 1487-1496 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1151 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



One of the main drawbacks of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) is the limited measurement depth range. Phase shifting techniques allow reconstructing the complex sample signal resulting in a doubled depth range. In current complex FDOCT realizations the phase shift is introduced via a reference path length modulation, which causes chromatic phase errors especially if broad bandwidth light sources are employed. With acousto-optic frequency shifters in the reference and sample arm, and the detector being locked to the resulting beating frequency, the signal is quadrature detected at high speed. The beating signal frequency is the same for all wavelengths allowing for achromatic complex reconstruction. With a Ti: Sapphire laser at 800 nm and spectral width of 130nm, a heterodyne complex FDOCT system is realized with 20kHz line rate and an axial resolution of 4μm.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.1060) Fourier optics and signal processing : Acousto-optical signal processing
(110.4500) Imaging systems : Optical coherence tomography
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(170.4500) Medical optics and biotechnology : Optical coherence tomography

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

Original Manuscript: December 20, 2005
Revised Manuscript: January 16, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: February 3, 2006
Published: February 20, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 3 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Adrian Bachmann, Rainer Leitgeb, and Theo Lasser, "Heterodyne Fourier domain optical coherence tomography for full range probing with high axial resolution," Opt. Express 14, 1487-1496 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y El Ziat,"Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry, " Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995). [CrossRef]
  2. G. Häusler, M. W. Lindner," Coherence radar and spectral radar - new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 21-31 (1998). [CrossRef]
  3. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher," In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. N. A. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, T. C. Chen, J. F. de Boer," In vivo high resolution video rate spectral domain optical coherence tomography of the human retina and optic nerve," Opt. Express 12, 367 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-3-367. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher "Performance of Fourier Domain vs. Time Domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-8-889. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma,"Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt,"Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-11-18-2183. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Wolf," Three dimensional structure determination of semi transparent objects from holographic data," Opt. Commun. 1, 153-156 (1969). [CrossRef]
  9. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser,"Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Reports on progress in physics 66, 239-303 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A.F Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2156. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. Cense, N. A. Nassif, T. C. Chen, M. C. Pierce, S. H. Yun, B. H. Park, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer," Ultrahigh-resolution high speed retinal imaging using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2435-2447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2435. [CrossRef]
  13. M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am J. Ophthalm. 138, 412-419 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povaz¡ay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, Ch. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, Ch. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-Dimensional Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography of Macular Diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci. 46, 3396-3402 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Wojtkowski, V. Scrinivasan, T. H. Ko, J.G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker," Ultrahigh-resolution, high speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-11-2404. [CrossRef]
  17. M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J.S. Duker, "Three-dimensional Retinal Imaging with High-Speed Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005). [CrossRef]
  18. A.F. Fercher, R. Leitgeb, C.K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, M. Wojtkowski, "Complex spectral interferometry OCT," Proc. SPIE Vol. 3564, 173 (1999). [CrossRef]
  19. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, A. F. Fercher," Full range complex spectral optical coherence tomography technique in eye imaging," Opt. Lett. 27, 1415-1417 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Targowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, "Compelx spectral OCT in human eye imaging in vivo," Opt. Commun. 229, 79-84 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Schmit and K. Creath, "Extended averaging technique for derivation of error-compensating algorithms in phase-shfiting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 34, 3610-3619 (1995). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Targowski, I. Gorczyńska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, H. Sumimura, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "One-shot-phase-shifting Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by reference wavefront tilting," Opt. Express 12, 6184-6191 (2004)http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-25-6184. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Phase shifting algorithm to achieve high speed long depth range probing by frequency domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2201-2203 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, R. Leitgeb, and C. Hitzenberger, "High speed full range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 13, 583-594 (2005)http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-583. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M.A. Choma, C. Yang, J.A. Izatt, "Instantaneous quadrature low-coherence interferometry with 3x3 fiber-optic couplers," Opt. Lett. 28, 2162 (2003).
  27. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency domain ranging," Opt. Express 12,2977- 2998 (2004)http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2977.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited