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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 5 — Mar. 6, 2006
  • pp: 1996–2002

Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities

Takashi Asano, Bong-Shik Song, and Susumu Noda  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 5, pp. 1996-2002 (2006)

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In this letter, we show that the Q factors of the latest high-Q cavities in two dimensional photonic crystals, measured experimentally to be ~1000000, are determined by losses due to imperfections in the fabricated structures, and not by the cavity design. Quantitative analysis shows that the dominant sources of loss include the tilt of air-holes within the cavity, the roughness of the inner walls of the air-holes, variation in the radii of the air-holes, and optical absorption by adsorbed material. We believe that cavities with experimental Q factors of the order of several millions will be obtained in the future by reducing the losses due to imperfections through improved fabrication techniques.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(290.0290) Scattering : Scattering

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystals

Original Manuscript: January 20, 2006
Revised Manuscript: February 23, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: February 23, 2006
Published: March 6, 2006

Takashi Asano, Bong-Shik Song, and Susumu Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006)

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  1. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nat. Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005). [CrossRef]
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  6. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944 -947 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. We believe that it is necessary to reveal the measurement method in detail since the FWHM of the spectrum is of the order of picometers, almost at the limit of resolution. An external cavity, tunable wavelength, semiconductor laser was used (SANTEC, TSL-210). The emission wavelength was changed by controlling the cavity length with a piezo actuator. The width of the laser line was < 1MHz (~ 8 fm at 1570 nm). Each time the emission wavelength was altered, it was measured using a wavelength meter (Agilent 86122-A-opt-002: with high precision option). The differential accuracy of the wavelength meter was ± 0.15 pm. The best Lorentzian fit to the resonant spectrum had a FWHM value of 1.95 pm. We evaluated the range of FWHM value as 1.8-2.1 pm by adding an error value of ± 0.15 pm to the best fit value. (In addition to the accuracy of the measurement system, there is a problem of temperature fluctuation since temperature dependence of the cavity resonant wavelength is as large as 80 pm/K [14]. This might widen the evaluation range of FWHM further, namely, the FWHM value might be smaller than 1.8pm or larger than 2.1pm.)
  8. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Opt Express,  13, 1202-1214 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-4-1202. [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Tanaka, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Theoretical investigation of a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab with truncated cone air holes," Appl Phys Lett. 82, 1661-1663 (2003). [CrossRef]
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  11. For Example: M Chaplin. Water Structure and Behavior. Personal Homepage, URL: http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/ (accessed 5/12/05).
  12. D. Liu, G. Ma, M. Xu, and H. C. Allen, "Adsorption of Ethylene Glycol vapor on r-Al2O3 (0001) and amorphous SiO2 surfaces: observation of molecular orientation and surface hydroxyl groups as sorption sites," Environ. Sci. Technol. 39, 206-212 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment," Opt. Express 13, 1515-1530 (2005). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-5-1515 [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Asano, W. Kunishi, M. Nakamura, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Dynamic wavelength tuning of channel-drop device in two-dimensional photonic crystal slab," Electron. Lett. 41, 37-38 (2005). [CrossRef]

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