OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 7 — Apr. 3, 2006
  • pp: 2650–2656

Programmable vector point-spread function engineering

Michael R. Beversluis, Lukas Novotny, and Stephan J. Stranick  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 7, pp. 2650-2656 (2006)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.14.002650


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (234 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We use two nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulators (SLM’s) to control the vector point spread function (VPSF) of a 1.3 numerical aperture (NA) microscope objective. This is achieved by controlling the polarization and relative phase of the electric field in the objective’s pupil. We measure the resulting VPSF’s for several different pupil field polarization states. By using single fluorescent molecules as local field probes, we are able to map out the focal field distributions and polarization purity of the synthesized fields. We report the achieved field purity and address the experimental issues that currently limit it.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(180.6900) Microscopy : Three-dimensional microscopy
(230.6120) Optical devices : Spatial light modulators

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

History
Original Manuscript: February 16, 2006
Revised Manuscript: March 27, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: March 28, 2006
Published: April 3, 2006

Virtual Issues
Vol. 1, Iss. 5 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Citation
Michael R. Beversluis, Lukas Novotny, and Stephan J. Stranick, "Programmable vector point-spread function engineering," Opt. Express 14, 2650-2656 (2006)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-7-2650


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 253, 358-379 (1959). [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. R. Sheppard and K. G. Larkin, "Vectorial pupil functions and vectorial transfer functions," Optik 107, 79-87 (1997).
  3. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233 901 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. G. Toraldo di Francia, "Nuovo pupille superrisolvente," Atti Fond.Giorgio Ronch 7, 366-372 (1952).
  5. C. C. Sun and C. K. Liu, "Ultrasmall focusing spot with a long depth of focus based on polarization and phase modulation," Opt. Lett. 28, 99-101 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. J. R. Sheppard and A. Choudhury, "Annular pupils, radial polarization, and superresolution," Appl. Opt. 43, 4322-4327 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, "Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 28, 923-925 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Yoshiki, M. Hashimoto, and T. Araki, "Second-harmonic-generation microscopy using excitation beam with controlled polarization pattern to determine three-dimensional molecular orientation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 44, L1066-L1068 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kuga, Y. Torii, N. Shiokawa, and T. Hirano, "Novel optical trap of atoms with a doughnut beam," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4713-4716 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. L. Novotny, E. J. Sanchez, and X. S. Xie, "Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite-Gaussian beams," Ultramicroscopy 71, 21-29 (1998). [CrossRef]
  11. B. Sick, B. Hecht, and L. Novotny, "Orientational imaging of single molecules by annular illumination," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4482-4485, (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. Novotny, M. R. Beversluis, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, "Longitudinal field modes probed by single molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5251-5254, (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. C. Tidwell, D. H. Ford, and W. D. Kimura, "Generating Radially Polarized Beams Interferometrically," Appl. Opt. 29, 2234-2239 (1990). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. G. Churin, J. Hossfeld, and T. Tschudi, "Polarization Configurations with Singular Point Formed by Computer- Generated Holograms," Opt. Commun. 99, 13-17 (1993). [CrossRef]
  15. T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, "An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams," Opt. Commun. 203, 1-5 (2002). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Stalder and M. Schadt, "Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters," Opt. Lett. 21, 1948-1950 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. A. Davis, D. E. McNamara, D. M. Cottrell, and T. Sonehara, "Two-dimensional polarization encoding with a phase-only liquid-crystal spatial light modulator," Appl. Opt. 39, 1549-1554 (2000). [CrossRef]
  18. M. A. A. Neil, F. Massoumian, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Method for the generation of arbitrary complex vector wave fronts," Opt. Lett. 27, 1929-1931 (2002). [CrossRef]
  19. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, T. Wilson, Z. J. Laczik, and V. Sarafis, "Optimized pupil-plane filters for confocal microscope point-spread function engineering," Opt. Lett. 25, 245-247 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, M. J. Booth, T. Wilson, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, "Adaptive aberration correction in a two-photon microscope," J. Microscopy-Oxford 200, 105-108 (2000). [CrossRef]
  21. Certain commerical equipment are indentified in this paper to foster understanding. Such identification does not imply reommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the equipment identified are necessarily the best available for this purpose.
  22. C. Ye, "Construction of an Optical Rotator Using Quarter-Wave Plates and an Optical Retarder," Opt. Eng. 34, 3031-3035 (1995). [CrossRef]
  23. B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems I. An integral representation of the image field," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A 253, 358-379 (1959). [CrossRef]
  24. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980), sixth edition.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Figures

Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
 

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited