OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: Michael Duncan
  • Vol. 14, Iss. 9 — May. 1, 2006
  • pp: 3738–3751

A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network

Bernard B. Wu and Evgenii E. Narimanov  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 9, pp. 3738-3751 (2006)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (459 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We develop a spread-spectrum based approach to secure communications over existing fiber-optical networks. Secure transmission for a dedicated user is achieved by overlaying a covert channel onto a host channel in the existing active fiber link. The covert channel is optically encoded and temporally spread, and has average power below the noise floor in the fiber, making it hidden for a direct detection thus allowing for cryptographic and steganographic security capabilities. The presence for the host channel in the network provides an ad hoc security expansion and increases the difficulty for an eavesdropper to intercept and decode the secure signal.

© 2006 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(060.2360) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics links and subsystems

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: February 27, 2006
Revised Manuscript: April 18, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: April 18, 2006
Published: May 1, 2006

Bernard B. Wu and Evgenii E. Narimanov, "A method for secure communications over a public fiber-optical network," Opt. Express 14, 3738-3751 (2006)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. J. Viterbi, "Spread spectrum communications - myths and realities," IEEE Commun. Mag. 17, 11-18 (1979) [CrossRef]
  2. P. R. Prucnal, M. A. Santoro, and T. R. Fan, "Spread spectrum fiber-optic local area network using optical processing," J. Lightwave Technol. 4, 547 (1986). [CrossRef]
  3. J. Shah, "Optical CDMA," Opt. Photon. Newslett. 14, 42-47 (2003) [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J. P. Heritage, "Coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communication systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 478-491 (1990) [CrossRef]
  5. S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young and S. Etermad "Experimental results on the simultaneous transmission of two 2.5 Gbps optical-CDMA channels and a 10 Gbps OOK channel within the same WDM window," Proc. OFC 2005 OWB3
  6. S. Shen and A.M. Weiner "Suppression of WDM interference for error-free detection of ultrashort-pulse CDMA signals in spectrally overlaid hybrid WDM-CDMA operation," IEEE Photonics Technol Lett. 13, 82-84 (2001) [CrossRef]
  7. Steganography defines the science of hiding information by embedding messages within other in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message.
  8. E. E. Narimanov and B. B. Wu, "Advanced coding techniques for asynchronous fiber-optical CDMA," Proc. CLEO 2005 JThE70
  9. A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, J. S. Patel, and J. R. Wullert, "Programmable shaping of femtosecond optical pulses by use of a 128-element liquid crystal phase modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 908-920 (1992) [CrossRef]
  10. E. Desurvire, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1994)
  11. J. A. Salehi, A. M. Weiner, and J.P. Heritage, "Temporal and statistical analysis of ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access communications network," in Proceedings of IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications 2, 728-733 (1989)
  12. E. E. Narimanov, "Information capacity of nonlinear fiber-optical systems: fundamental limits and OCDMA performance," in Optical Code Division Multiple Access: Fundamentals and Applications, P. R. Prucnal, ed. (CRC, 2005)
  13. S. M. Ross, Introduction To Probability Models 6th Edition (Academic Press, 1997) [PubMed]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optical Communication Systems 3rd Edition (Wiley-Interscience, 2002) [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited