OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 11 — May. 28, 2007
  • pp: 6670–6676

Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate

Tsung-Xian Lee, Ko-Fon Gao, Wei-Ting Chien, and Ching-Cherng Sun  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 11, pp. 6670-6676 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (143 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with Monte Carlo ray tracing is presented. To obtain high light extraction efficiency, periodic structures introduced on the top surface and/or on the substrate of various types of LED are simulated, including wire bonding, flip chip and Thin GaN. Micro pyramid array with an apex angle from 20° to 70° is shown to effectively improve the light extraction efficiency. In addition, for an LED encapsulated within an epoxy lens, the patterned substrate with pyramid array is found to be a more effective way to increase light extraction efficiency than the surface texture.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(230.3670) Optical devices : Light-emitting diodes
(230.3990) Optical devices : Micro-optical devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: February 12, 2007
Revised Manuscript: May 8, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: May 11, 2007
Published: May 16, 2007

Tsung-Xian Lee, Ko-Fon Gao, Wei-Ting Chien, and Ching-Cherng Sun, "Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate," Opt. Express 15, 6670-6676 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-state Lighting, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002).
  2. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources becoming smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Z. Ting and T. C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of. light-emitting diode light extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995). [CrossRef]
  5. S. J. Lee, "Analysis of light-emitting diode by Monte Carlo photo simulation," Appl. Opt. 40, 1427-1437 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. A. Badano and J. Kanicki, "Monte Carlo analysis of the spectral photon emission and extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 90, 1827-1830 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. C. C. Sun, C. Y. Lin, T. X. Lee, and T. H. Yang, "Enhancement of light extraction of GaN-based LED with introducing micro-structure array, " Opt. Eng. 43, 1700-1701 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. T. X. Lee, C. Y. Lin, S. H. Ma and C. C. Sun, "Analysis of position-dependent. light extraction of GaN- based LEDs," Opt. Express 13, 4175-4179 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma Y. L. Lee and S. M. Huang, "Precise optical. modeling for LED lighting based on cross-correlation in mid-field region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Carneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, "30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film lightemitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2174-2176 (1993). [CrossRef]
  11. M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Hofler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J-W. Huang, S.A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, and M. G. Craford, "High-power truncated- pyramid (AlGa)InP/GaP light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365-2367 (1999). [CrossRef]
  12. R. Windisch, C. Rooman, S. Meinlschmidt, P. Kiesel, D. Zipperer, G. H. Döhler, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, G. Borghs, and P. Heremans, "Impact of texture-enhanced transmission on high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2315-2317 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Huh, K. S. Lee, E. J. Kang, and S. J. Park, "Improved light-output and electrical performance of InGaN-based light-emitting diode by microroughening of the p-GaN surface," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9383-9385 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. Danbaars, and S. Nakamura, "Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-base light emitting diodes via surface roughening," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 855-857 (2004). [CrossRef]
  15. J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, and S. A. Stockman, "High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 3379-3381 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, "Light- extraction mechanisms in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes," J. Select. Topics Quantum Electronics 8, 248-255 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. W. S. Wong, T. Sands, N. W. Cheung, M. Kneissl, D. P. Bour, P. Mei, L. T. Romano, and N. M. Johnson, "Fabrication of thin-film InGaN light-emitting diode membranes by laser lift-off," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1360-1362 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. Danbaars and S. Nakamura, "Roughening Hexagonal surface morphology on Laser lift-off (LLO) N face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching," Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L637-L639, (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. J. F. Muth, J. D. Brown, M. A. L. Johnson, Z. Yu, R. M. Kolbas, J. W. Cook, Jr., and J. F. Schetzina, " Absorption coefficient and refractive index of GaN, AlN and AlGaN alloys," MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 4S1, G5.2 (1999).
  20. A. B. Djuriié, Y. Chan, and B. H. Li, "Calculations of the refractive index of AlGaN/GaN quantum well," Proc. SPIE 4283, 630-637 (2001). [CrossRef]
  21. J. Q. Xi, H. Luo, A. J. Pasquale, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, "Enhanced light extraction in GaInN light-emitting diode with pyramid reflector," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 18, 2347-2349 (2006). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited