OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 16 — Aug. 6, 2007
  • pp: 10408–10420

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy imaging at interfaces: evidence of interference effects

D. Gachet, F. Billard, N. Sandeau, and H. Rigneault  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 16, pp. 10408-10420 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (479 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We show in this paper that the contrast of the interface between resonant and nonresonant media imaged in Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy strongly depends on the pump and Stokes fields spectral detuning. More specifically, when this detuning drives the vibrational resonance with the maximum phase difference, a spatial dip appears at the interface in the CARS image. This effect is studied both theoretically and experimentally and is an evidence of the coherent and resonant nature of the CARS contrast mechanism.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(180.5810) Microscopy : Scanning microscopy
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(300.6230) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: February 27, 2007
Revised Manuscript: April 18, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 20, 2007
Published: August 2, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 9 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

D. Gachet, F. Billard, N. Sandeau, and H. Rigneault, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy imaging at interfaces: evidence of interference effects," Opt. Express 15, 10408-10420 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. M. D. Duncan, J. Reintjes and T. J. Manuccia, "Scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope," Opt. Lett. 7, 350-352 (1982). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via Epidetected Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 023901 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1363-1375 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. E. O. Potma and X. S. Xie, "Detection of single lipid bilayers with coherent anti-Stokes-Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Raman Spectrosc. 34, 642-650 (2003). [CrossRef]
  6. D. Oron, N. Dudovich and Y. Silberberg, "Single-Pulse Phase-Contrast Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 273001 (2002). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Greve, B. Bodermann, H. R. Telle, P. Baum and E. Riedle, "High-contrast chemical imaging with gated heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 81, 875-879 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, "Near-infrared coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy using supercontinuum generated from a photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 80, 243-246 (2005). [CrossRef]
  9. J.-X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy and Applications to Cell Biology," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, "Vibrationally resonant imaging of a single living cell by supercontinuum-based mutiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy," Opt. Express 13, 1322-1327 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, "In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14,2798-2804 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Djaker, D. Gachet, N. Sandeau, P.-F. Lenne and H. Rigneault, "Refractive effects in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 7005-7011 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. A. J. Druet, B. Attal, T. K. Gustafson and J. P. Taran, "Electronic resonance enhancement of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. A 18, 1529-1557 (1978). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley Interscience, 1984).
  15. M. D. Levenson and N. Bloembergen, "Dispersion of the nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor in centrosymmetric media," Phys. Rev. A 10, 4447-4463 (1974).
  16. H. Lotem, R. T. Lynch, Jr and N. Bloembergen, "Interference between Raman resonances in four-wave difference mixing," Phys. Rev. A 14, 1748-1755 (1976). [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Fleming and C. S. Johnson Jr., "A practical analysis for coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectra," J. Raman Spectrosc. 8, 284-290 (1979). [CrossRef]
  18. P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambride University Press, 1990).
  19. Spectral Database for Organic Compounds SDBS, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/SDBS>.
  20. D. Gachet, N. Sandeau and H. Rigneault, "Far-field radiation pattern in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) Microscopy," Proc. SPIE 6093, 609309 (2006).
  21. B. Richards and E. Wolf, "Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system," Roy. Soc. of London Proc. Series A 253, 358-379 (1959). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Gachet, N. Sandeau and H. Rigneault, "Influence of the Raman depolarisation ratio on far-field radiation patterns in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. - Rapid Publications 1, 06013 (2006), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos rp/article/view/06013>. [CrossRef]
  23. E. O. Potma, D. J. Jones, J.-X. Cheng, X. S. Xie and J. Ye, "High-sensitivity coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with two tightly synchronized picosecond lasers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1168-1170 (2002). [CrossRef]
  24. P. D. Maker and R. W. Terhune, "Study of optical effects due to an induced Polarization Third Order in the Electric Field Strength," Phys. Rev. 137, 801-818 (1965). [CrossRef]
  25. G. W. H. Wurpel, J. M. Schins and M. Müller, "Chemical specificity in three-dimensional imaging with Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 1093-1095 (2002). [CrossRef]
  26. J.-X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book and X. S. Xie, "Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy and Study of Lipid Vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493-8498 (2002). [CrossRef]
  27. E. M. Vartiainen, H. A. Rinia, M. Müller, and M. Bonn, "Direct extraction of Raman line-shapes from congested CARS spectra," Opt. Express 14, 3622-3630 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited