OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 17 — Aug. 20, 2007
  • pp: 10842–10854

Rapid thermal annealing in high repetition rate ultrafast laser waveguide writing in lithium niobate

Amir H. Nejadmalayeri and Peter R. Herman  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 17, pp. 10842-10854 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1825 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



For the first time to our knowledge, bulk modification of lithium niobate using high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses has been studied. A fiber based ultrafast laser has been applied in a range of 0.1 to 1.5 MHz repetition rate to directly inscribe optical waveguides in z-cut lithium niobate. Circularly polarized light with stretched 600 fs pulses produced waveguides with nearly circular mode profiles that guided in the telecom band of 1300 nm. Higher laser repetition rate of 700 kHz was found to offer smooth waveguides with low propagation loss of 0.6 dB/cm, matching the best reported value so far, with the advantage of 50 fold faster writing speed. At repetition rates of 250 kHz and higher, the tracks exhibited a cladding-like modification zone that extended outside the main laser interaction volume, yielding smoother structures, despite higher net fluence delivery, providing concrete evidence of heat accumulation and thermal annealing effects. We also present the first observation of periodic micro-structures in the bulk laser interaction volume of a non-glass material.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.3390) Lasers and laser optics : Laser materials processing
(160.3730) Materials : Lithium niobate
(220.4000) Optical design and fabrication : Microstructure fabrication
(230.7370) Optical devices : Waveguides
(320.7160) Ultrafast optics : Ultrafast technology

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: May 4, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 10, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: August 4, 2007
Published: August 14, 2007

Amir H. Nejadmalayeri and Peter R. Herman, "Rapid thermal annealing in high repetition rate ultrafast laser waveguide writing in lithium niobate," Opt. Express 15, 10842-10854 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, "Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz," Appl. Phys. A 76, 309-311 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. L. Gui, B. X. Xu, and T. C. Chong, "Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1337-1339 (2004). [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewett, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081108 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. J. Burghoff, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "Structural properties of femtosecond laser-induced modifications in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. A 86, 165-170 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. A. H. Nejadmalayeri and P. R. Herman, "Ultrafast laser waveguide writing: lithium niobate and the role of circular polarization and picosecond pulse width," Opt. Lett. 31, 2987-2989 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Iwanow, R. Schiek, G. I. Stegeman, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, Y. Min, and W. Sohler, "Observation of discrete quadratic solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 113902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Streltsov and N. F. Borrelli, "Fabrication and analysis of a directional coupler written in glass by nanojoule femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 26, 42-43 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, I. Hartl, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Photonic device fabrication in glass by use of nonlinear materials processing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 26, 1516-1518 (2001). [CrossRef]
  13. K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing," Opt. Express 10, 645-652 (2002). [PubMed]
  14. C. B. Schaffer, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser," Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process. 76, 351-354 (2003). [CrossRef]
  15. M. Will, J. Burghoff, J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, S. Nolte, and A. Tunnermann, "High speed fabrication of optical waveguides inside glasses using a high rep-rate fiber CPA system," Proc. SPIE 5339, 168-174 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. C. B. Schaffer, A. O. Jamison, and E. Mazur, "Morphology of femtosecond laser-induced structural changes in bulk transparent materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1441-1443 (2004). [CrossRef]
  17. A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, and R. Vallee, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Juodkazis, H. Misawa, and I. Maksimov, "Thermal accumulation effect in three-dimensional recording by picosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5239-5241 (2004). [CrossRef]
  19. S. M. Eaton, H. B. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, "Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 4708-4716 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, "Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate," Opt. Express 13, 1999-2006 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Ramponi, G. Cerullo, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "Optical waveguide writing with a diode-pumped femtosecond oscillator," Opt. Lett. 29, 1900-1902 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, G. Cerullo, P. Laporta, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, "C-band waveguide amplifier produced by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 13, 5976-5982 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. M. Kowalevicz, V. Sharma, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Minoshima, "Three-dimensional photonic devices fabricated in glass by use of a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Lett. 30, 1060-1062 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Osellame, V. Maselli, N. Chiodo, D. Polli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, "Fabrication of 3D photonic devices at 1.55 ?m wavelength by femtosecond Ti:sapphire oscillator," Electron. Lett. 41, 315-317 (2005). [CrossRef]
  25. W. J. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, "Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing," Opt. Express 14, 10,117-10,124 (2006). [CrossRef]
  26. K. Suzuki, V. Sharma, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, "Characterization of symmetric [3x3] directional couplers fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser oscillator," Opt. Express 14, 2335-2343 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates," Opt. Express 14, 5279-5284 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985). [CrossRef]
  29. K. G. Deshmukh and K. Singh, "Domain structure in lithium niobate single crystals," J. Phys. D 5, 1680-1687 (1972). [CrossRef]
  30. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. H. Nejadmalayeri, "Ultrafast Laser Matter Interaction: Bulk Guided Wave Optics in Crystals," Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada (2007).
  33. K. K. Wong, ed., Properties of Lithium Niobate (IEE, London, UK, 2002).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited