OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 18 — Sep. 3, 2007
  • pp: 11301–11312

Spatial-temporal structure of the femtosecond third harmonic generation in photonic-crystal fibers

Vladimir L. Kalashnikov, Evgeni Sorokin, and Irina T. Sorokina  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 18, pp. 11301-11312 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (910 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We analyze the third harmonic generation by the supercontinuum at 1.5 µm in nonlinear-glass microstructured fibers. The numerical model includes the real field dynamics and allows analyzing the spectral as well as the temporal structure of the generated field. The calculated third harmonic and supercontinuum spectra are compared with the experiment in the SF6 glass PCF pumped by a femtosecond Cr4+:YAG oscillator. The spectral structure of the third harmonic is composed of the 10–20 high-order modes excited at the phase matching points around 500–550 nm. The individual third harmonic modes have spectral widths of 2–4 nm. In the time domain, the third harmonic signal is a ~10-ps pulse with ps-scale slow modulation, containing subpicosecond ripples at its trailing edge.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4380) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, four-wave mixing
(190.5530) Nonlinear optics : Pulse propagation and temporal solitons

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: May 24, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 19, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: August 15, 2007
Published: August 22, 2007

Vladimir L. Kalashnikov, Evgeni Sorokin, and Irina T. Sorokina, "Spatial-temporal structure of the femtosecond third harmonic generation in photonic-crystal fibers," Opt. Express 15, 11301-11312 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78,1135-1184 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, "Raman effects in the infrared supercontinuum generation in softglass PCFs," Appl. Phys. B. 87, 37-44 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. H. Stolen, "Phase-matched-stimulated four-wave mixing in silica-fiber waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11,100-103 (1975). [CrossRef]
  4. R. H. Stolen and W. H. Leibolt, "Optical fiber modes using stimulated four photon mixing," Appl. Opt. 11,239-243 (1976). [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. Dudley, L. Provino, N. Grossard, H. Mailotte, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Eggleton, S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in air-silica microstructured fibers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse pumping," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,765-771 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. V. Price, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, W. Belardi, J. C. Baggett, S. Coyle, C. Netti, J. J. Baumberg, R. Paschotta, D. J. Richardson, "UV generation in a pure-silica holey fiber," Appl. Phys. B 77,291-298 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. C. G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Ultrabroadband phase-matched optical parametric generation in the ultraviolet by use of guided waves," Opt. Lett. 22,1565-1567 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Zheltikov, N. I. Koroteev, A. N. Naumov, "Self- and cross-phase modulation accompanyning thirdharmonic generation in a hollow waveguide," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 88,857-867 (1999). [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, "Optical properties of high-delta air-silica microstructure optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 25,796-798 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. A. N. Naumov, D. A. Sidorov-Biryukov, F. Giammanco, A. B. Fedotov, P. Marsili, A. Ruffini, O. A. Kolevatova, and A.M. Zheltikov, "Four-wave mixing of picosecond pulses in hollow fibers: phase matching and the influence of high-order waveguide modes," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 93,247-255 (2001). [CrossRef]
  11. S. O. Konorov, A. B. Fedotov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Enhanced four-wave mixing in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28,1448-1450 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. D. Moll, D. Homoelle, and A. L. Gaeta, "Conical harmonic generation in isotropic matherials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88,153901 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, H. Zellmer, A. T¨unnermann, K. P. Hansen, "High average power supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 228,71-78 (2003). [CrossRef]
  14. A. N. Naumov, A. B. Fedotov, A. M. Zheltikov, V. V. Yakovlev, L. A. Mel’nikov, V. I. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, A. V. Shcherbakov, "Enhanced χ(3) interactions of unamplified femtosecond Cr:forsterite laser pulses in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19,2183-2190 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. Jt. Russell, "Simultaneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 26,1158-1160 (2001). [CrossRef]
  16. N. Y. Joly, T. A. Birks, A. Yulin, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Linear and nonlinear guidance in an ultralow loss planar glass membrane," Opt. Lett. 30,2469-2471 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11,2567-2576 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. A. Ivanov, D. Lorenc, F. Uherek, E. E. Serebrynnikov, S. O. Konorov, M. V. Alfimov, D. Chorvat, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Multimode anharmonic third-order harmonic generation in a photonic-crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. E 73,016610 (2006). [CrossRef]
  19. A. B. Fedotov, Ping Zhou, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, S. N. Bagayev, V. S. Shevandin, K. V. Dukel’skiˆı, V. B. Smirnov, A. P. Tarasevitch, D. von der Linde, and A. M. Zheltikov, "The mode structure and spectral properties of supercontinuum emission from microstructured fibers," J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 95,851-860 (2002). [CrossRef]
  20. V. Grubsky, A. Savchenko, "Glass micro-fibers for efficient third harmonic generation," Opt. Express 13, 6798- 6806 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. A. Sammut, A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, "Modification of solitary waves by third-harmonic generation," Opt. Lett. 22, 1385-1387 (1997). [CrossRef]
  22. R. A. Sammut, A. V. Buryak, Y. S. Kivshar, "Bright and dark solitary waves in the presence of third-harmonic generation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1488-1496 (1998). [CrossRef]
  23. F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, M. D. Moores, J. Arriaga, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Simulataneous generation of spectrally distinct third harmonics in a photonic fiber," Opt. Lett. 26,1158-1160 (2001). [CrossRef]
  24. F. G. Omenetto, A. Efimov, J. Taylor, J. C. Knight,W. J. Wadsworth, and P. St. J. Russell, "Polarization dependent harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 11,61-67 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, "Spectral-temporal dynamics of ultrashort Raman solitons and their role in third-order harmonic generation in photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. B 80,721-725 (2005). [CrossRef]
  26. E. E. Serebrynnikov, A. B. Fedotov, A. M. Zheltikov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, V. I. Beloglazov, N. B. Skibina, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, J. C. Knight, "Third-harmonic generation by Raman-shifted solitons in a photonic-crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23,1975-1980 (2006). [CrossRef]
  27. A. N. Naumov, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Asymmetric spectral broadening and temporal evolution of cross-phasemodulated third-harmonic pulses," Opt. Express 10,122-127 (2002). [PubMed]
  28. D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, A. N. Naumov, O. A. Kolevatova, M. V. Alfimov, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, A. A. Podshivalov, A. M. Zheltikov, "Generation of a spectrally asymmetric third harmonic with unamplified 30-fs Cr:forsterite laser pulses in a tapered fiber," Appl. Phys. B 76,515-519 (2003). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Zheltikov, "Multimode guided non-3ω third-harmonic generation by ultrashort laser pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22,2263-2269 (2005). [CrossRef]
  30. A. M. Zheltikov, "Third-harmonic generation with no signal at 3ω," Phys. Rev. A 72,043812 (2005). [CrossRef]
  31. G. Genty, P. Kinsler, B. Kibler, J.M. Dudley, "Non linear envelope equation modeling of sub-cycle dynamics and harmonic generation in nonlinear waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 5382-5387 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A.N. Berkovsky, S.A. Kozlov, Yu.A. Shpolyanskiy, "Self-focusing of few-cycle light pulses in dielectric media," Phys. Rev. A 72, 043821 (2005). [CrossRef]
  33. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, "Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6 PCF using a compact Cr4+:YAG laser," Appl. Phys. B 79, 591- 596 (2004). [CrossRef]
  34. E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I.T. Sorokina, "Ultrabroadband infrared solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 690-712 (2005). [CrossRef]
  35. P. Xie, Zh.-Q. Zhang, "Large enhancement of third-harmonic generation induced by coupled gap solitons in χ(3) nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 71, 026610 (2005). [CrossRef]
  36. G.P. Agrawal: Nonlinear fiber optics 3rd ed., (Academic Press, New York, 2001), p 263.

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited