OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 19 — Sep. 17, 2007
  • pp: 11903–11912

Computational model for operation of 2 µm co-doped Tm,Ho solid state lasers

Oleg A. Louchev, Yoshiharu Urata, Norihito Saito, and Satoshi Wada  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 19, pp. 11903-11912 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (205 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A computational model for operation of co-doped Tm,Ho solid-state lasers is developed coupling (i) 8-level rate equations with (ii) TEM00 laser beam distribution, and (iii) complex heat dissipation model. Simulations done for Q-switched ≈0.1 J giant pulse generation by Tm,Ho:YLF laser show that ≈43 % of the 785 nm light diode side-pumped energy is directly transformed into the heat inside the crystal, whereas ≈45 % is the spontaneously emitted radiation from 3F4, 5I7, 3H4 and 3H5 levels. In water-cooled operation this radiation is absorbed inside the thermal boundary layer where the heat transfer is dominated by heat conduction. In high-power operation the resulting temperature increase is shown to lead to (i) significant decrease in giant pulse energy and (ii) thermal lensing.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(140.3480) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, diode-pumped
(140.3540) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, Q-switched
(140.3580) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, solid-state

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

Original Manuscript: May 2, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 26, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: July 26, 2007
Published: September 5, 2007

Oleg A. Louchev, Yoshiharu Urata, Norihito Saito, and Satoshi Wada, "Computational model for operation of 2 μm co-doped Tm,Ho solid state lasers," Opt. Express 15, 11903-11912 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J.K. Tyminski, D.M. Franich and M. Kokta, "Gain dynamics of Tm,Ho:YAG pumped in near infrared," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 3181-3188 (1989). [CrossRef]
  2. V.A. French, R.R. Petrin, R.C. Powell, and M. Kokta, "Energy-transfer processes in Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho," Phys. Rev. B 46, 8018-8026 (1992).
  3. R.R. Petrin, M.G. Jani, R.C. Powell and M. Kokta, "Spectral dynamics of laser-pumped Y3Al5O12:Tm,Ho lasers," Opt. Mater. 1,111-124 (1992). [CrossRef]
  4. M.G. Jani, R J. Reeves, R.C. Powell, G.J. Quarles and L. Esterovitz, "Alexandrite-laser excitation of a Tm:Ho:Y3Al5O12 laser." J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 741-746 (1991).
  5. M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K.E. Murray, and G.E. Lockard, "Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4 laser at 10 Hz," Opt. Lett. 20, 872-874 (1995) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Yu, U.N. Singh, N.P. Barnes and M. Petros "125-mJ diode-pumped injection-seeded Ho:Tm:YLF laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 780-782 (1998). [CrossRef]
  7. A.N. Alpat'ev, V.A. Smirnov, I.A. Shcherbakov, "Relaxation oscillations of the radiation from a 2-μm holmium laser with a Cr,Tm,Ho:YSGG crystal," Quantum Electron. 28, 143-146 (1998). [CrossRef]
  8. I.F. Elder and M.J.P. Payne, "Lasing in diode-pumped Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho,YLF," Opt. Commun. 145, 329-339 (1995). [CrossRef]
  9. N. P. Barnes, E. D. Filer, C. A. Morrison and C. J. Lee, "Ho:Tm Lasers I: Theoretical," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 92-103 (1996). [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Lee, G. Han and N.P. Barnes, "Ho:Tm Lasers II: Experiments," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 104-111 (1996). [CrossRef]
  11. G. Rustad and K. Stenersen, "Modeling of laser-pumped Tm and Ho lasers accounting for upconversion and ground-state depletion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1645 -1656 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Bruneau, S. Delmonte and J. Pelon, "Modeling of Tm,Ho:YAG and Tm,Ho:YLF 2-μm lasers and calculation of extractable energies," Appl. Opt. 37, 8406-8419 (1998). [CrossRef]
  13. G. L. Bourdet and G. Lescroart, "Theoretical modeling and design of a Tm,Ho:YLiF4 microchip laser," Appl. Opt. 38, 3275-3281 (1999). [CrossRef]
  14. S. D. Jackson and T.A. King, "CW operation of a 1.064-μm pumped Tm-Ho-Doped silica fiber laser," IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 34,1578-1587 (1998). [CrossRef]
  15. V. Sudesh and K. Asai, "Spectroscopic and diode-pumped-laser properties of Tm,Ho:YLF; Tm,Ho:LuLF; and Tm,Ho:LuAG crystals: a comparative study," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1829-1837 (2003).
  16. A. Sato, K. Asai and K. Mizutani, "Lasing characteristics and optimizations of diode-side-pumped Tm,Ho:GdVO4 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 836 -838 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. B.M. Walsh, N.P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu and U.N. Singh, "Spectroscopy and modeling of solid state lanthanide lasers: Application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255-3271 (2004). [CrossRef]
  18. G. Galzerano, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, M. Tonelli, P. Laporta, "Widely tunable continuous-wave diode-pumped 2-µm Tm-Ho:KYF4 laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 715-717 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Izawa, H. Nakajima, H. Hara, and Y. Arimoto, "Comparison of lasing performance of Tm,Ho:YLF lasers by use of single and double cavities," Appl. Opt. 39, 2418-2421 (2000). [CrossRef]
  20. J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, E. A. Modlin, U.N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, "1 J/pulse Q-switched 2 μm solid-state laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 462-464 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. X. Zhang, Y. Ju and Y. Wang, "Theoretical and experimental investigation of actively Q-switched Tm,Ho:YLF lasers," Opt. Express 14, 7745-7750 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. O.A. Louchev, Y. Urata, and S. Wada, "Numerical simulation and optimization of Q-switched 2 μm Tm,Ho:YLF laser," Opt. Express 15, 3940-3947 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. P. Černý and D. Burns, "Modeling and experimental investigation of a diode-pumped Tm:YAlO3 laser with a- and b-cut crystal orientations," IEEE J. of selected topics in quantum electron. 11, 674-681 (2005). [CrossRef]
  24. V.P. Risk, "Modeling of longitudinally pumped solid-state lasers exhibiting reabsorption losses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1412-1423 (1988).
  25. D. Golla, M. Bode, S. Knoke, W. Schöne, and A. Tünnermann, "62-W cw TEM00 Nd:YAG laser side-pumped by fiber-coupled diode lasers," Opt. Lett. 21, 210-212 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, "Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water," Appl. Opt. 28, 1714-1719 (1989). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. W. Koechner, Solid -State Laser Engineering, 6th Edition (New-York, Springer, 2006).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited