OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 2 — Jan. 22, 2007
  • pp: 629–638

Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal

Lukas Mutter, Andrea Guarino, Mojca Jazbinšek, Marko Zgonik, Peter Günter, and Max Döbeli  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 2, pp. 629-638 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (228 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We report for the first time to our knowledge optical waveguiding in an organic crystalline waveguide produced by ion implantation. Using H+ ions a refractive index barrier suitable for waveguiding has been realized in the highly nonlinear optical organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST). The refractive index changes in the waveguiding region as a function of the distance from the surface have been measured. Maximal refractive index changes of up to -0.2 and -0.1 at wavelengths of 633nm and 810nm have been realized, respectively. The waveguide refractive index profiles as a function of the ion fluence have been determined. Planar waveguiding has been demonstrated by polishing sharp edges and using conventional end-fire coupling. The measured losses are ~7dB/cm at 1.57μm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(230.7390) Optical devices : Waveguides, planar
(260.1180) Physical optics : Crystal optics

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: September 25, 2006
Manuscript Accepted: December 28, 2006
Published: January 22, 2007

Lukas Mutter, Andrea Guarino, Mojca Jazbinšek, Marko Zgonik, Peter Günter, and Max Döbeli, "Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000). [CrossRef]
  2. F. Pan, G. Knöpfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Günter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Mutter, M. Jazbinšek, M. Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST Channel Optical Waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Science,  220, 88-95 (2003). [CrossRef]
  7. W. Geis, R. Sinta,W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004). [CrossRef]
  8. S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Phys.,  3, 449-462, (2002). [CrossRef]
  9. M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation, (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1994). [CrossRef]
  11. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-Dimethylamino-4’-N’-Methyl-stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Fluck, D. H. Jundt, P. Günter, M. Fleuster, and Ch. Buchal, "Modeling of refractive index profiles of He+ ion-implanted KNbO3 waveguides based on the irradiation parameters," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 6023-6031 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Günter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. P. D. Townsend, "An overview of ion-implanted optical waveguide profiles," Nucl. Instrum. and Methods B 46, 18-25 (1990). [CrossRef]
  15. L. Zhang, P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and J. R. Kulisch, "Ion implanted waveguides in polymethylmethacrylate," J. Appl. Phys. 66, 4547-4548 (1989). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Guarino and P. Günter, "Nondestructive method for the characterization of ion-implanted optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2412-2414 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited