OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 22 — Oct. 29, 2007
  • pp: 14539–14549

SiPM for fast Photon-Counting and Multiphoton Detection

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 22, pp. 14539-14549 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (318 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate fast counting and multiphoton detection abilities of a Silicon Photo Multiplier (SiPM). In fast counting mode we are able to detect two consecutive photons separated by only 2.3 ns corresponding to 430 MHz. The counting efficiency for small optical intensities at λ = 532 nm was found to be around 16% with a dark count rate of 52 kHz at T = -5° C. Using the SiPM in multiphoton detection mode, we find a good signal discrimination for different numbers of simultaneously detected photons.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(040.1240) Detectors : Arrays
(040.5160) Detectors : Photodetectors
(040.5570) Detectors : Quantum detectors
(040.1345) Detectors : Avalanche photodiodes (APDs)

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: July 9, 2007
Revised Manuscript: October 5, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: October 16, 2007
Published: October 19, 2007

P. Eraerds, M. Legré, A. Rochas, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, "SiPM for fast Photon-Counting and Multiphoton Detection," Opt. Express 15, 14539-14549 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. S. Cova, M. Ghioni, A. Lacaita, C. Samori, F. Zappa, "Avalanche photodiodes and quenching circuits for singlephoton detection," Appl. Opt. 35, 1956-1976 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Takeuchi, J. Kim, Y. Yamamoto, H. Hogue, "Development of a high-quantum-efficiency single-photon counting system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1063-1065 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, R. Sobolewski, "Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001). [CrossRef]
  4. R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, "Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD," New J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, Y. Yamamoto, "Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single photon detectors," Nature Photonics 1, 343 (2007) (revised version). [CrossRef]
  6. K. J. Gordon, V. Fernandez, G. S. Buller, I. Rech, S. D. Cova, P. D. Townsend, "Quantum key distribution system clocked at 2 GHz," Opt. Express 13, 3015-3020 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. J. Collins, R. H. Hadfield, V. Fernandez, S. W. Nam, G. S. Buller, "Low timing jitter detector for gigahertz quantum key distribution," Electron. Lett. 43, 180-182 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, Y. Yamamoto, "10-GHz clock differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment," Opt. Express 14, 9522-9530 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Stefanov, N. Gisin, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, H. Zbinden, "Optical Quantum Random Number Generator," quant-ph/9907006 (1999).
  10. T. Jennewein, U. Achleitner, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger "A Fast and Compact Quantum Random Number Generator," quant-ph/9912118v1.
  11. E. Diamanti, C. Langrock, M.M. Fejer, Y. Yamamoto, "1.5 μm photon-counting optical time-domain reflectometry with a single-photon detector based on upconversion in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide," Opt. Lett. 31, 727-729 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Legre, R. T. Thew, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, "High resolution optical time domain reflectometer based on 1.55m up-conversion photon-counting module," Opt. Express 15, 8237-8242 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Straubmeier, G. Kanbach, and F. Schrey, "OPTIMA : A Photon Counting High-Speed Photometer," Exp. Astr. 11, 157-170 (2001). [CrossRef]
  14. G. Naletto,C. Barbieri, T. Occhipinti, F. Tamburini, D. Dravins, "Very fast photon counting photometers for astronomical applications: from QuantEYE to AquEYE," Proceedings SPIE Europe, Prague 07, 6583A-10 (2007).
  15. A. Korneev, P. Kouminov, V. Matvienko, G. Chulkova, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, M. Currie, W. Lo, K. Wilsher, J. Zhang, W. Slysz, A. Pearlman, A. Verevkin, R. Sobolewski, "Sensitivity and gigahertz counting performance of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5338-5340 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, R. S. Popovic, "Actively Recharged Single Photon Counting Avalanche CMOS Photodiode with less than 9ns Dead Time," Proc. 16th Eurosensors Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, 482-483, 15-18 Sept. 2002.
  17. A. Giudice, M. Ghioni, R. Biasi, S. Cova, P. Maccagnani, A. Gulinatti, "High-rate photon counting and picosecond timing with silicon-SPAD based compact detector modules," J. Mod. Opt. 54 (2-3), 225-237 (2007). [CrossRef]
  18. S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, V. Schettini, and A. Migdall, "Reduced Deadtime and Higher Rate Photon- Counting Detection using a Multiplexed Detector Array," J. Mod. Opt. 54, 337-352 (2007). [CrossRef]
  19. Buzhan et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 504, 48-52 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. V. Golovin, V. Saveliev, "Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation," Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 518, 560-564 (2004). [CrossRef]
  21. A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, M. Teshima, "A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET," Nucl. Instrum. Methods 545, 705-715 (2005). [CrossRef]
  22. E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, R. Rocca, "Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications," et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods 571, 130-133 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited