OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 23 — Nov. 12, 2007
  • pp: 15207–15213

Shot noise limited heterodyne detection of CARS signals

M. Jurna, J.P. Korterik, C. Otto, and H.L. Offerhaus  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 23, pp. 15207-15213 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (104 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate heterodyne detection of CARS signals using a cascaded phase-preserving chain to generate the CARS input wavelengths and a coherent local oscillator. The heterodyne amplification by the local oscillator reveals a window for shot noise limited detection before the signal-to-noise is limited by amplitude fluctuations. We demonstrate an improvement in sensitivity by more than 3 orders of magnitude for detection using a photodiode. This will enable CARS microscopy to reveal concentrations below the current mMolar range.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4410) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, parametric processes
(300.6230) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
(300.6290) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, four-wave mixing
(300.6310) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, heterodyne

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: May 24, 2007
Revised Manuscript: July 9, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: August 28, 2007
Published: November 1, 2007

Virtual Issues
Vol. 2, Iss. 12 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, C. Otto, and H. L. Offerhaus, "Shot noise limited heterodyne detection of CARS signals," Opt. Express 15, 15207-15213 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, and X. S. Xie, "Theoretical and experimental characterization of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 1363-1375 (2002). [CrossRef]
  2. A. Voroshilov, C. Otto, and J. Greve, "Secondary Structure of Bovine Albumin as Studied by Polarization-Sensitive Multiplex CARS Spectroscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 78-85 (1996). [CrossRef]
  3. G. Petrov and V. Yakovlev, "Enhancing red-shifted white-light continuum generation in optical fibers for applications in nonlinear Raman microscopy," Opt. Express 13, 1299-1306 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, "In-vivo multi-nonlinear optical imaging of a living cell using a supercontinuum light source generated from a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 2798-2804 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Nan, E. Potma, X. S. Xie, "Nonperturbabtive chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with CARS microscopy," Biophysical J. 91, 728-735 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. B. Rakic, S.M. Sagan, M. Noestheden, S. Belanger, X. Nan, C.L. Evans, X.S. Xie and J.P. Pezacki, "Peroxisome peroliferator-activated receptor α antagonism inhibits hepatitis C virus replication," Chem. Biol. 13, 23-30 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. O. Potma, C. L. Evans, and X. S. Xie, "Heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 241-243 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R.W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, (Academic Press) 2003.
  9. M. Jurna, J. P. Korterik, H. L. Offerhaus and C. Otto, "Noncritical phase-matched lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator for high resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251116 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. T. Tukker, "A high repetition rate picosecond infrared light source for a sum frequency vibration spectrometer," Thesis University of Twente, The Netherlands, ISBN 90-365 11860 (1998).
  11. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Cote, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. F. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. E. R. Andresen, S. R. Keiding, and E. O. Potma, "Picosecond anti-Stokes generation in a photonic-crystal fiber for interferometric CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 7246-7251 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. von Vacano, T. Buckup and M. Motzkus, "Highly sensitive single-beam heterodyne coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Opt. Lett. 31, 2495-2498 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. M. H. P. van Dijk, "Single Nanoparticles, ultrafast and unltrasensitive detection," Thesis Universiteit Twente, The Netherlands ISBN 90-365-2136-X (2005).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited