OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 24 — Nov. 26, 2007
  • pp: 16189–16195

Photon-counting passive 3D image sensing for reconstruction and recognition of partially occluded objects

Seokwon Yeom, Bahram Javidi, Chae-wook Lee, and Edward Watson  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 24, pp. 16189-16195 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (693 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



In this paper, we discuss the reconstruction and the recognition of partially occluded objects using photon counting integral imaging (II). Irradiance scenes are numerically reconstructed for the reference target in three-dimensional (3D) space. Photon counting scenes are estimated for unknown input objects using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of Poisson parameter. We propose nonlinear matched filtering in 3D space to recognize partially occluded targets. The recognition performance is substantially improved from the nonlinear matched filtering of elemental images without 3D reconstruction. The discrimination capability is analyzed in terms of Fisher ratio (FR) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.3780) Detectors : Low light level
(100.3010) Image processing : Image reconstruction techniques
(100.6890) Image processing : Three-dimensional image processing
(110.6880) Imaging systems : Three-dimensional image acquisition
(100.3008) Image processing : Image recognition, algorithms and filters
(100.4992) Image processing : Pattern, nonlinear correlators

ToC Category:
Image Processing

Original Manuscript: September 27, 2007
Revised Manuscript: November 12, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 13, 2007
Published: November 21, 2007

Seokwon Yeom, Bahram Javidi, Chae-wook Lee, and Edward Watson, "Photon-counting passive 3D image sensing for reconstruction and recognition of partially occluded objects," Opt. Express 15, 16189-16195 (2007)

Sort:  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics, (Jonh wiley & Sons, inc., 1985), Chap 9.
  2. G. M. Morris, "Scene matching using photon-limited images," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 1, 482-488 (1984). [CrossRef]
  3. E. A. Watson and G. M. Morris, "Comparison of infrared upconversion methods for photon-limited imaging," J. Appl. Phys. 67, 6075-6084 (1990). [CrossRef]
  4. D. Stucki, G. Ribordy, A. Stefanov, H. Zbinden, J. G. Rarity, and T. Wall, "Photon counting for quantum key distribution with Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP APDs," J. Mod. Opt. 48, 1967-1981 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. P. A. Hiskett, G. S. Buller, A. Y. Loudon, J. M. Smith, I Gontijo, A. C. Walker, P. D. Townsend, and M. J. Robertson, "Performance and design of InGaAs/InP photodiodes for single-photon counting at 1.55 um," Appl. Opt. 39, 6818-6829 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. L. Duraffourg, J.-M. Merolla, J.-P. Goedgebuer, N. Butterlin, and W. Rhods, "Photon counting in the 1540-nm wavelength region with a Germanium avalanche photodiode," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 75-79 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. J. G. Rarity, T. E. Wall, K. D. Ridley, P. C. M. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, "Single-photon counting for the 1300-1600-nm range by use of Peltier-cooled and passively quenched InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," Appl. Opt. 39, 6746-6753 (2000). [CrossRef]
  8. P. Refregier, F. Goudail, and G. Delyon, "Photon noise effect on detection in coherent active images," Opt. Lett. 29, 162-164 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, "Photon counting passive 3D image sensing for automatic target recognition," Opt. Express 13, 9310-9330 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Yeom, B. Javidi, and E. Watson, "Three-dimensional distortion-tolerant object recognition using photon-counting integral imaging," Opt. Express 15, 1513-1533 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Sadjadi, ed., Selected Papers on Automatic Target Recognition, (SPIE-CDROM, 1999).
  12. A. Mahalanobis, R. R. Muise, S. R. Stanfill, and A. V. Nevel, "Design and application of quadratic correlation filters for target detection," IEEE Trans. on Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 40, 837-850 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kwon and N. M. Nasrabadi, "Kernel RX-algorithm: a nonlinear anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery," IEEE Trans. on Geosci.Remote Sens. 43, 388-397 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. J.-S. Jang and B. Javidi, "Time-multiplexed integral imaging for 3D sensing and display," Optics and Photonics News 15, 36-43 (2004).
  15. J. Y. Son, V. V. Saveljev, J. S. Kim, S. S. Kim, and B. Javidi, "Viewing zones in three-dimensional imaging systems based on lenticular, parallax-barrier, and microlens-array plates," Appl. Opt. 43, 4985-4992 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Stern and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional image sensing, visualization, and processing using integral imaging," Proceedings of the IEEE 94, 591- 607 (2006). [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Frauel, E. Tajahuerce, O. Matoba, M.A. Castro, and B. Javidi, "Comparison of passive ranging integral imaging and active imaging digital holography for 3D object recognition," Appl. Opt. 43, 452-462 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Raul Martinez-Cuenca, Amparo Pons, Genaro Saavedra, Manuel Martinez-Corral, and Bahram Javidi, "Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display," Opt. Express 14, 9657-9663 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. H. Hong, J. S. Jang, and B. Javidi, "Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 12, 483-491 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J.-H. Park, J. Kim, and B. Lee, "Three-dimensional optical correlator using a sub-image array," Opt. Express 13, 5116-5126 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. B. Javidi, R. Ponce-Diaz, and S-. H. Hong, "Three-dimensional recognition of occluded objects by using computational integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 31, 1106-1108 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. H. Hong and B. Javidi, "Distortion-tolerant 3D recognition of occluded objects using computational integral imaging," Opt. Express 14, 12085-12095 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. Vaish, R. Szeliski, C. L. Zitnick, S. B. Kang, and M. Levoy, "Reconstructing occluded surfaces using synthetic: stereo, focus and robust measures," Proceedings of the IEEE CVPR’06 (2006).
  24. S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1993).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: AVI (4725 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (6431 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited