OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 26 — Dec. 24, 2007
  • pp: 17881–17890

Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators

Jiangfeng Zhou, Thomas Koschny, and Costas M. Soukoulis  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 26, pp. 17881-17890 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (431 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We studied the electric and magnetic resonances of U-shaped SRRs. We showed that higher order excitation modes exist in both of the electric and magnetic resonances. The nodes in the current distribution were found for all the resonance modes. It turns out that the magnetic resonances are the modes with odd-number of half-wavelength of the current wave, i.e. λ/2, 3λ/2 and 5λ/2 modes, and the electric resonances are modes with integer number of whole-wavelength of current wave, i.e. λ, 2λ and 3λ modes. We discussed the electric moment and magnetic moment of the electric and magnetic resonances, and their dependence to the length of two parallel side arms. We show that the magnetic moment of magnetic resonance vanishes as the length of side arms of the SRR reduces to zero, i.e. a rod does not give any magnetic moment or magnetic resonance.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.4760) Materials : Optical properties
(260.5740) Physical optics : Resonance
(350.3618) Other areas of optics : Left-handed materials
(160.3918) Materials : Metamaterials

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: October 3, 2007
Revised Manuscript: November 16, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: November 19, 2007
Published: December 14, 2007

Jiangfeng Zhou, Thomas Koschny, and Costas M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic and electric excitations in split ring resonators," Opt. Express 15, 17881-17890 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. V. G. Veselago, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968). [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, "Metamaterials and negative refractive index," Science 305(5685), 788-792 (2004). [CrossRef]
  3. C. M. Soukoulis, M. Kafesaki, and E. N. Economou, "Negative-index materials: New frontiers in optics," Advanced Materials 18, 1941-1952 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, G. Dolling, M. W. Klein, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Burger, F. Schmidt, and M. Wegener, "Photonic metamaterials: Magnetism at optical frequencies," IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 12, 1097-1105 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative-index metamaterials," Nature Photonics 1(1), 41-48 (2007). [CrossRef]
  6. C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, "Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths," Science 315(5808), 47-49 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. R. S. Penciu, M. Kafesaki, T. F. Gundogdu, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Theoretical study of lefthanded behavior of composite metamaterials," Photonics Nanostructures-fundamentals Applications 4(1), 12-16 (2006). [CrossRef]
  8. N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators," Photon. and Nanostruct.: Fundam. and Appl. 5, 149 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins, and W. Stewart, "Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theroy Tech. 47, 2075 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. D. Smith, W. Padilla, D. Vier, S. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Physical Review Letters 84, 4184 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic Metamaterials at Telecommunication and Visible Frequencies," Physical Review Letters 95(20), 203901 (pages 4) (2005). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v95/e203901. [CrossRef]
  14. N. Katsarakis, G. Konstantinidis, A. Kostopoulos, R. Penciu, T. Gundogdu, M. Kafesaki, E. Economou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of split-ring resonators in the far-infrared frequency regime," Optics Letters 30, 1348-1350 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. N. Katsarakis, T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electric coupling to the magnetic resonance of split ring resonators," Applied Physics Letters 84(15), 2943-2945 (2004). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/84/2943/1. [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics) 73(4), 041101 (pages 4) (2006). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v73/e041101. [CrossRef]
  17. J. F. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction," Applied Physics Letters 88(22), 221103 (pages 3) (2006). URL http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/88/221103/1. [CrossRef]
  18. S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared Resonant Magnetic Nanostructures Exhibiting a Negative Permeability," Physical Review Letters 94(3), 037402 (pages 4) (2005). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v94/e037402. [CrossRef]
  19. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Experimental Demonstration of Near-Infrared Negative-Index Metamaterials," Physical Review Letters 95(13), 137404 (pages 4) (2005). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v95/e137404. [CrossRef]
  20. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths," Optics Letters 31, 1800-1802 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Simultaneous Negative Phase and Group Velocity of Light in a Metamaterial," Science 312, 892 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, "Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Optics Letters 32(1), 53-55 (2007). [CrossRef]
  23. U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H. K. Yuan, W. Cai, S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Dual-band negative index metamaterial: double negative at 813 nm and single negative at 772 nm," Optics Letters 32, 1671- 1673 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-12-1671. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics) 65(19), 195104 (pages 5) (2002). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v65/e195104. [CrossRef]
  25. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials," Physical Review E 71(3), 036,617 (2005).
  26. T. Koschny, P. Markos, E. N. Economou, D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Impact of inherent periodic structure on effective medium description of left-handed and related metamaterials," Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics) 71(24), 245105 (pages 22) (2005). URL http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v71/e245105. [CrossRef]
  27. T. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Effective medium theory of left-handed materials," Physical Review Letters 93(10) (2004).
  28. T. Koschny, P. Markos, D. R. Smith, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Resonant and antiresonant frequency dependence of the effective parameters of metamaterials," Physical Review E 68(6), 065,602 (2003).
  29. C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, "On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence," Optics Express 14(19), 8827-8836 (2006). [CrossRef]
  30. C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, "The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach," Optics Express 15(14), 8871-8883 (2007). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited