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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 5 — Mar. 5, 2007
  • pp: 2251–2261

Geometric invariant blind image watermarking by invariant Tchebichef moments

Li Zhang, Gong-bin Qian, Wei-wei Xiao, and Zhen Ji  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 5, pp. 2251-2261 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.002251


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Abstract

Many proposed image watermarking techniques are sensitive to geometric distortions, such as rotation, scaling and translation. Geometric distortions, even by slight amount, can make watermark decoder disable. In this paper, a geometric invariant blind image watermarking is designed by utilizing the invariant Tchebichef moments. The detailed construction of invariant Tchebichef moments is described. Watermark is generated independent to the original image and inserted into the perceptually significant invariant Tchebichef moments of original image. The watermark decoder extracts watermark blindly utilizing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The computational aspects of the proposed watermarking are also discussed in detail. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed watermarking technique is robust against geometric distortions and other attacks performed by popular watermark benchmark-Stirmark, such as filtering, image compression, additive noise, random geometric distortions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(070.6020) Fourier optics and signal processing : Continuous optical signal processing
(100.0100) Image processing : Image processing
(100.2000) Image processing : Digital image processing

ToC Category:
Image Processing

History
Original Manuscript: October 11, 2006
Revised Manuscript: February 9, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: February 10, 2007
Published: March 5, 2007

Citation
Li Zhang, Gong-bin Qian, Wei-wei Xiao, and Zhen Ji, "Geometric invariant blind image watermarking by invariant Tchebichef moments," Opt. Express 15, 2251-2261 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2251


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References

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