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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 5 — Mar. 5, 2007
  • pp: 2654–2668

Optimization of pump spectra for gain-flattened photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifiers operating in C-band

Kazuya Sasaki, Shailendra K. Varshney, Keisuke Wada, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 5, pp. 2654-2668 (2007)

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This paper focuses on the optimization of pump spectra to achieve low Raman gain ripples over C-band in ultra-low loss photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and dispersion compensating PCFs (DCPCFs). Genetic algorithm (GA), a multivariate stochastic optimization algorithm, is applied to optimize the pump powers and the wavelengths for the aforesaid fiber designs. In addition, the GA integrated with full-vectorial finite element method with curvilinear edge/nodal elements is used to optimize the structural parameters of DCPCF. The optimized DCPCF provides broadband dispersion compensation over C-band with low negative dispersion coefficient of -530 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm, which is five times larger than the conventional dispersion compensating fibers with nearly equal effective mode area (21.7 μm2). A peak gain of 8.4 dB with ±0.21 dB gain ripple is achieved for a 2.73 km long DCPCF module when three optimized pumps are used in the backward direction. The lowest gain ripple of ±0.36 dB is attained for a 10 km long ultra-low loss PCF with three backward pumps. Sensitivity analysis has been performed and it is found that within the experimental fabrication tolerances of ±2%, the absolute magnitude of dispersion may vary by ±16%, while the Raman gain may change by ±7%. Through tolerance study, it is examined that the ring core’s hole-size is more sensitive to the structural deformations.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2280) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber design and fabrication
(060.2400) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber properties

ToC Category:
Photonic Crystal Fibers

Original Manuscript: January 2, 2007
Revised Manuscript: January 31, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: February 20, 2007
Published: March 5, 2007

Kazuya Sasaki, Shailendra K. Varshney, Keisuke Wada, Kunimasa Saitoh, and Masanori Koshiba, "Optimization of pump spectra for gain-flattened photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifiers operating in C-band," Opt. Express 15, 2654-2668 (2007)

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