OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 6 — Mar. 19, 2007
  • pp: 3426–3436

65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography

Wojciech Haske, Vincent W. Chen, Joel M. Hales, Wenting Dong, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder, and Joseph W. Perry  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 6, pp. 3426-3436 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (4530 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Nanoscale features as small as 65 ± 5 nm have been formed reproducibly by using 520 nm femtosecond pulsed excitation of a 4,4’-bis(di-n-butylamino)biphenyl chromophore to initiate crosslinking in a triacrylate blend. Dosimetry studies of the photoinduced polymerization were performed on chromophores with sizable two-photon absorption cross-sections at 520 and 730 nm. These studies show that sub-diffraction limited line widths are obtained in both cases with the lines written at 520 nm being smaller. Three-dimensional multiphoton lithography at 520 nm has been used to fabricate polymeric woodpile photonic crystal structures that show stop bands in the near-infrared spectral region.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(190.4180) Nonlinear optics : Multiphoton processes
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(350.3450) Other areas of optics : Laser-induced chemistry

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

Original Manuscript: January 26, 2007
Revised Manuscript: February 26, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: March 2, 2007
Published: March 19, 2007

Wojciech Haske, Vincent W. Chen, Joel M. Hales, Wenting Dong, Stephen Barlow, Seth R. Marder, and Joseph W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X.-L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51 - 54 (1999). [CrossRef]
  2. W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An Efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Serbin, A. Egbert, A. Ostendorf, B. N. Chichkov, R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, C. Cronauer, L. Fröhlich, and M. Popall, "Femtosecond laser-induced two-photon polymerization of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for applications in photonics," Opt. Lett. 28, 301-303 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Stellacci, C. A. Bauer, T. Meyer-Friedrichsen, W. Wenseleers, V. Alain, S. M. Kuebler, S. J. K. Pond, Y. Zhang, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Laser and electron-beam induced growth of nanoparticles for 2D and 3D metal patterning," Adv. Mater. 14, 194-198 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Rumi, J. E. Ehrlich, A. A. Heikal, J. W. Perry, S. Barlow, Z. Hu, D. McCord-Maughon, T. C. Parker, H. Rockel, S. Thayumanavan, S. R. Marder, D. Beljonne, and J. L. Bredas, "Structure-property relationships for two-photon absorbing chromophores: Bis-Donor Diphenylpolyene and Bis(styryl)benzene Derivatives," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 9500-9510 (2000). [CrossRef]
  6. S. M. Kuebler, M. Rumi, T. Watanabe, K. Braun, B. H. Cumpston, A. A. Heikal, L. L. Erskine, S. Thayumanavan, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Optimizing Two-Photon Initiators and Exposure Conditions for Three-Dimensional Lithographic Microfabrication," J. Photopolym. Sci. Technol. 14, 657 - 668 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. M. Deubel, G. Von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444 - 447 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Galajda, and P. Ormos, "Complex micromachines produced and driven by light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 249 - 251 (2001). [CrossRef]
  9. J. D. Pitts, P. J. Campagnola, G. A. Epling, and S. L. Goodman, "Submicron multiphoton free-form fabrication of proteins and polymers: studies of reaction efficiencies and applications in sustained release," Macromolecules 33, 1514-1523 (2000). [CrossRef]
  10. S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697 - 698 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Improved spatial resolution and surface roughness in photopolymerizationbased laser nanowriting," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071122 - 071121 (2005). [CrossRef]
  12. K. Takada, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," Proc. SPIE 6110, 61100A-1 - 61100A-7 (2006).
  13. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005). [CrossRef]
  14. M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002). [CrossRef]
  15. G. Lemercier, J.-C. Mulatier, C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, O. Stephan, N. Amari, P. Baldeck, "Two-photon absorption: from optical power limiting to 3D microfabrication," CR Chimie 8, 1308-1316 (2005). [CrossRef]
  16. M. Rumi, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0400 (unpublished results, 2006).
  17. A. S. Kewitsch, A. Yariv, "Self-focusing and self-trapping of optical beams upon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 21, 24-26 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. M. Kuebler, B. H. Cumpston, S. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, "Three-dimensional microfabrication using two-photon activated chemistry," Proc. SPIE 3937, 97-105 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. S. Y. Lin, J. G. Fleming, D. L. Hetherington, B. K. Smith, R. Biswas, K. M. Ho, M. M. Sigalas, W. Zubrzycki, S. R. Kurtz, J. Bur, "A three-dimensional photonic crystal operating at infrared wavelengths," Nature 394, 251-253 (1998). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited