OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 6 — Mar. 19, 2007
  • pp: 3437–3451

Four beams evanescent waves interference lithography for patterning of two dimensional features

J. K. Chua, V. M. Murukeshan, S. K. Tan, and Q. Y. Lin  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 6, pp. 3437-3451 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.003437


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1389 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

This work presents a theoretical study of using the interference of multiple counter-propagating evanescent waves as a lithography technique to print periodic two dimensional features. The formulation of the three dimensional Cartesian space expression of an evanescent wave is presented. In this work, the evanescent wave is generated by the total internal reflection of a plane wave at the interface between a incident dielectric material and a weakly absorbing transmission medium. The influences of polarization, incident angle and the phase shifting of the incident plane waves on the evanescent wave interference are studied. Numerical simulation results suggest that this technique enables fabrication of periodic two dimensional features with resolution less than one third the wavelength of the irradiation source.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(220.3740) Optical design and fabrication : Lithography
(240.6690) Optics at surfaces : Surface waves
(260.6970) Physical optics : Total internal reflection

ToC Category:
Optical Design and Fabrication

History
Original Manuscript: January 23, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 9, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: March 9, 2007
Published: March 19, 2007

Citation
J. K. Chua, V. M. Murukeshan, S. K. Tan, and Q. Y. Lin, "Four beams evanescent waves interference lithography for patterning of two dimensional features," Opt. Express 15, 3437-3451 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3437


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. F. M. Schellenberg, "The next generation of RET,"Adv. Microlithogr. Technol. 5645, 1-13 (2005).
  2. H. B. Burnett et al., "Modeling and experimental investigation of bubble entrapment for flow over topography during immersion lithography," JM35, 13008 (2006).
  3. S. Kusumoto et al., "Advanced materials for 193 nm immersion lithography," Polym. Adv. Technol. 17122 (2006). [CrossRef]
  4. W. Hinsberg and F. Houle, "Numeric analysis of the role of liquid phase ultraviolet photochemistry in 193 nm immersion lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 232427 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. T. Niiyama and A. Kawai, "Formation factors of watermark for immersion lithography" Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 Regular Papers and Short Notes and Review Papers, 45 5383 (2006). [CrossRef]
  6. B. W. Smith,  et al., "Water immersion optical lithography at 193nm," JM33, 44 (2004).
  7. L. P. Ghislain,  et al., "Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74,501 (1999). [CrossRef]
  8. D. Nam, T. D. Milster, and T. Chen, "Potential of solid immersion lithography using I-line and KrF light source," Proc. SPIE 5754,1049-1055 (2004). [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Wu et al., "Realization of numerical aperture 2.0 using a gallium phosphide solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75,4064 (1999). [CrossRef]
  10. G. S. Kino, "Application and theory of immersion lens," Proc. SPIE 3609,56-66 (1999). [CrossRef]
  11. B. D. Terris et al., "Near-field optical data storage using a solid immersion lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65,388 (1994). [CrossRef]
  12. T. Milster, J. S. Jo, and K. Hirota, "Roles of propagating and evanescent waves in solid immersion system," Appl. Opt 38,5046 (1999). [CrossRef]
  13. T. Milster et al., " Maskless lithography with the solid immersion lens nanoprobes," Proc. SPIE 5567,545-556 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. R. J. Blaikie and S. J. McNab, "Evanescent interferometric lithography," Appl. Opt. 40,1692 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. K. A. Stetson, "Holography with total internally reflected light," Appl. Phys. Lett. 11,225 (1967). [CrossRef]
  16. K. A. Stetson, "Improved Resolution and signal to noise ratios in total internal reflection holograms," Appl. Phys. Lett. 12,362 (1968). [CrossRef]
  17. S. Sainov et al., "High spatial frequency evanescent wave holographic recording in photopolymers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 5,142 (2003). [CrossRef]
  18. P. S. Ramanujam, "Evanescent polarization holographic recording of sub-200nm gratings in an azobenzene polyester," Opt. Lett. 28,2375 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. B. W. Smith et al., "Evanescent wave imaging in optical lithography," Proc. SPIE. 6154,61540A. (2006). [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Ohdaira,  et al., "Fabrication of surface relief gratings on azo dye thin films utilizing an interference of evanescent waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,051102 (2005). [CrossRef]
  21. J. C. Martinez-Anton, "Surface relief subwavelength gratings by means of total internal reflection evanescent wave interference lithography," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8,213 (2006). [CrossRef]
  22. F. de Fornel, Evanescent Waves (Springer 2000).
  23. E. Hecht, Optics (Adison Wesley 4th ed.).
  24. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (6th Corrected ed., Pergamon Press, 1983).
  25. F. Kaneko, H. Miyamoto and K. Masamichi, "Polarized infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy for three dimensional structural analysis on long chain compounds," J. Chem. Phys. 105,4812 (1996). [CrossRef]
  26. S. Sainov and R. Stoycheva-Topalova, "Total internal reflection holographic recording in very thin films," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2,117 (2000). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited