OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 7 — Apr. 2, 2007
  • pp: 3931–3939

Integration of active and passive polymer optics

Mads Brøkner Christiansen, Mikkel Schøler, and Anders Kristensen  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 7, pp. 3931-3939 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (2565 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized protrusions and an integrated metal shadow mask. In the CNP process, a combined UV mask and nanoimprint stamp is embossed into the resist, which is softened by heating, and UV exposed. Hereby the mm to μm sized features are defined by the UV exposure through the metal mask, while nm-scale features are formed by mechanical deformation (nanoimprinting). The lasers are integrated with undoped SU-8 polymer waveguides. The waferscale fabrication process has a yield above 90% and the emission wavelengths are reproduced within 2 nm. Confinement of the light on the chip is demonstrated, and the influence on the laser wavelength from temperature and refractive index changes in the surroundings is investigated, pointing towards the use of the described fabrication method for on-chip polymer sensor systems.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(130.3120) Integrated optics : Integrated optics devices
(140.2050) Lasers and laser optics : Dye lasers
(140.3490) Lasers and laser optics : Lasers, distributed-feedback
(140.7300) Lasers and laser optics : Visible lasers

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

Original Manuscript: February 5, 2007
Revised Manuscript: March 26, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: March 26, 2007
Published: April 2, 2007

Mads B. Christiansen, Mikkel Schøler, and Anders Kristensen, "Integration of active and passive polymer optics," Opt. Express 15, 3931-3939 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. E. Verpoorte, "Chip vision-optics for microchips," Lab. Chip 3, 42N-52N (2003).
  2. L. Lading, L. B. Nielsen, and T. Sevel, "Comparing biosensors," Proceedings of the IEEE Sensors 2002 pp. 229-232 (2002).
  3. D. Nilsson, S. Balslev, M. M. Gregersen, and A. Kristensen, "Micro-fabricated solid state dye lasers based on a photo-definable polymer," Appl. Opt. 44, 4965-4971 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Bilenberg, M. Hansen, D. Johansen, V. Ozkapici, C. Jeppesen, P. Szabo, I. M. Obieta, O. Arroyo, J. O. Tegenfeldt, and A. Kristensen, "Topas Based Lab-on-a-chip Microsystems Fabricated by Thermal Nanoimprint Lithography," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2944-2949 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. M. Gersborg-Hansen and A. Kristensen, "Tunability of optofluidic distributed feedback dye lasers," Opt. Express 15, 137-142 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Voss, D. Scheel, and W. Shade, "A microchip-laser-pumped DFB-polymer-dye laser," Appl. Phys. B 73, 105- 109 (2001). [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated Emission in a Periodic Structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1971). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Oki, T. Yoshiura, Y. Chisaki, and M. Maeda, "Lasers and Laser Optics - Fabrication of a distributed-feedback dye laser with a grating structure in its plastic waveguide," Appl. Opt. 41, 5030-5035 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3114-3117 (1995). [CrossRef]
  10. M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, S. Balslev, R. B. Nielsen, D. H. Petersen, and A. Kristensen, "Wafer-scale fabrication of polymer distributed feedback lasers," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 3252-3257 (2006). [CrossRef]
  11. D. Nilsson, T. Nielsen, and A. Kristensen, "Molded plastic micro-cavity lasers," Microelectron. Eng. 73-74, 372-376 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. D. Nilsson, T. Nielsen, and A. Kristensen, "Solid State Micro-cavity Dye Lasers Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4481-4486 (2004). [CrossRef]
  13. X. Cheng and L. J. Guo, "One-step lithography for various size patterns with a hybrid mask-mold," Microelectron. Eng. 71, 288-293 (2004). [CrossRef]
  14. V. Baev, T. Latz, and P. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Hunsperger, Integrated Optics: Theory and Technology, Fifth edition (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002).
  16. M. Beck, M. Graczyk, I. Maximov, E.-L. Sarwea, T. G. I. Ling, M. Keil, and L. Montelius, "Improving stamps for 10 nm level wafer scale nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 61-62, 441-448 (2002). [CrossRef]
  17. M. S. Schmidt, T. Nielsen, D. N. Madsen, A. Kristensen, and P. Bøggild, "Nano-scale silicon structures by using Carbon nanotubes as reactive ion masks," Nanotechnology 16, 750-753 (2005). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited