OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 8 — Apr. 16, 2007
  • pp: 4994–5007

Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array

Viktor Gruev, Alessandro Ortu, Nathan Lazarus, Jan Van der Spiegel, and Nader Engheta  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 8, pp. 4994-5007 (2007)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1718 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



A thin film polarization filter has been patterned and etched using reactive ion etching (RIE) in order to create 8 by 8 microns square periodic structures. The micropolarization filters retain the original extinction ratios of the unpatterned thin film. The measured extinction ratios on the micropolarization filters are ~1000 in the blue and green visible spectrum and ~100 in the red spectrum. Various gas combinations for RIE have been explored in order to determine the right concentration mix of CF4 and O2 that gives optimum etching rate, in terms of speed and under-etching. Theoretical explanation for the optimum etching rate has also been presented. In addition, anisotropic etching with 1μm under cutting of a 10μm thick film has been achieved. Experimental results for the patterned structures under polarized light are presented. The array of micropolarizers will be deposited on top of a custom made CMOS imaging sensor in order to compute the first three Stokes parameters in real time.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.5220) Imaging systems : Photolithography
(120.5410) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Polarimetry
(230.5440) Optical devices : Polarization-selective devices

ToC Category:
Optical Devices

Original Manuscript: November 9, 2006
Revised Manuscript: March 19, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: March 24, 2007
Published: April 10, 2007

Viktor Gruev, Alessandro Ortu, Nathan Lazarus, Jan Van der Spiegel, and Nader Engheta, "Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array," Opt. Express 15, 4994-5007 (2007)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles in Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1965).
  2. J. K. Boger, "Pupil-plane speckleimaging with a referenced polarization technique," Opt. Lett. 24,611-613 (1999). [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Rogne, F. G. Smith, and J. E. Rice, "Passive target detection using polarized components of infrared signature," Proc. SPIE 1317, 3756-3764 (1990).
  4. Y. Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, "Clear underwater vision," Proc. IEEE CVPR 1, 536-543 (2004).
  5. T. W. Cronin and J. Marshall, "Parallel processing and image analysis in the eyes of Mantis shrimps," The Biological Bulletin 200,177-189 (2001). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Labhart, "Polarization opponent interneurons in the insect visual system," Nature,  331,435-437 (1988). [CrossRef]
  7. A. G. Andreou and Z. K. Kalayjian, "Polarization imaging: principles and integrated polarimeters," IEEE Sens. J. 2,566-576 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. M. Momeni and A. H. Titus, "An analog VLSI chip emulating polarization vision of octopus retina," IEEE Trans. Neural. Netw. 17,222-232 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. L. B. Wolff, T. A. Mancini, P. Pouliquen, and A. G. Andreou, "Liquid crystal polarization camera," IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom. 13,195-203 (1997). [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Tyo, M. P. Rowe, E. N. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Target detection in optically scattering media by Polarization-Difference Imaging," Appl. Opt. 35,1855-1870 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. S. Tyo, E. N. Pugh, and N. Engheta, "Colorimetric representations for use with polarization-difference imaging of objects in scattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15,367-374 (1998). [CrossRef]
  12. Z. K. Kalayjian, "VLSEye: Optoelectronic Vision and Image Processing," Ph.D. dissertation, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD 1999.
  13. Z. K. Kalayjian, A. G. Andreou, and L. B. Wolff, "1D polarisation contrast retina," Electron. Lett. 33,38-40 (1997). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Hamamoto, H. Toyota, and H. Kikuta, "Microretarder array for imaging polarimetry in the visible wavelength region," Proc. SPIE 440, 293-300 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. J. Guo and D. Brady, "Fabrication of high-resolution micropolarizer array," Opt. Eng. 36,2268-2271 (1997). [CrossRef]
  16. J. Guo and D. Brady, "Fabrication of thin-film micropolarizer arrays for visible imaging polarimetry," Appl. Opt. 39,1486-1492 (2000). [CrossRef]
  17. G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. W. Jones, "Micropolarizer Array for Infrared Imaging Polarimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16,1184-1193 (1999). [CrossRef]
  18. V. Gruev and R. Etienne-Cummings, "Implementation of steerable spatiotemporal image filters on the focal plane," IEEE Trans. on Circ. and Sys.II: Anal. and Dig. Sig. Proc. 49,233-244 (2002).
  19. V. Gruev, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, "Image sensor with focal plane extraction of Polarimetric Information," Proc. IEEE ISCAS 213-216 (2006).
  20. D. Goldstein, Polarized Light, (Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, 2003). [CrossRef]
  21. http://www.dymax.com
  22. http://www.microchem.com
  23. J. F. Battey, "Design criteria for uniform reaction rates in an oxygen plasma," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 24, 140-146 (1977).
  24. J. M. Cook and B. W. Benson, "Application of EPR spectroscopy to oxidative removal of organic materials," J. Electrochem. Soc. 130,2459-2464 (1983). [CrossRef]
  25. T. T. Wydeven, C. C. Johnson, M. A. Golub, M. S. Hsu, and N. R. Lerner, "Plasma Polymerization," Proc. ACS Symposium Series 299-314 (1979).
  26. http://www.edmundoptics.com

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MOV (2933 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3069 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (11746 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (12739 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited