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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijin de Sterke
  • Vol. 15, Iss. 9 — Apr. 30, 2007
  • pp: 5494–5503

Uniform illumination and rigorous electromagnetic simulations applied to CMOS image sensors

Jérôme Vaillant, Axel Crocherie, Flavien Hirigoyen, Adam Cadien, and James Pond  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 15, Issue 9, pp. 5494-5503 (2007)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.15.005494


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Abstract

This paper describes a new methodology we have developed for the optical simulation of CMOS image sensors. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) software is used to simulate light propagation and diffraction effects throughout the stack of dielectrics layers. With the use of an incoherent summation of plane wave sources and Bloch Periodic Boundary Conditions, this new methodology allows not only the rigorous simulation of a diffuse-like source which reproduces real conditions, but also an important gain of simulation efficiency for 2D or 3D electromagnetic simulations. This paper presents a theoretical demonstration of the methodology as well as simulation results with FDTD software from Lumerical Solutions.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(040.0040) Detectors : Detectors
(110.0110) Imaging systems : Imaging systems

ToC Category:
Imaging Systems

History
Original Manuscript: November 10, 2006
Revised Manuscript: April 18, 2007
Manuscript Accepted: April 18, 2007
Published: April 20, 2007

Citation
Jérôme Vaillant, Axel Crocherie, Flavien Hirigoyen, Adam Cadien, and James Pond, "Uniform illumination and rigorous electromagnetic simulations applied to CMOS image sensors," Opt. Express 15, 5494-5503 (2007)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-9-5494


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References

  1. A. El Gamal and H. Eltoukhy, "CMOS Image Sensors. An introduction to the technology, design, and performance limits, presenting recent developments and future directions," IEEE Circuits & Devices Magazine (May/June 2005).
  2. E. R. Fossum, "CMOS Image Sensors: Electronic Camera-On-A-Chip," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 44, 1689-1698 (1997). [CrossRef]
  3. P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, "QE Reduction due to Pixel Vignetting in CMOS Image Sensors," Proc. SPIE 3965, 420-430 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Catrysse and B. A. Wandell, "Optical efficiency of image sensor pixels," J. Opt. Soc. Am A 19, 1610-1620 (2002). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Vaillant and F. Hirigoyen, "Optical simulation for CMOS imager microlens optimization," Proc. SPIE 5459, 200-210 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. H. Rhodes, G. Agranov, C. Hong, U. Boettiger, R. Mauritzon, J. Ladd, I. Karasev, J. McKee, E. Jenkins, W. Quinlin, I. Patrick, J. Li, X. Fan, R. Panicacci, S. Smith, C. Mouli, and J. Bruce, "CMOS Imager Technology Shrinks and Image Performance," IEEE (2004).
  7. K. S. Yee, "Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in Isotropic Media," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302-307 (1966). [CrossRef]
  8. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics : the finite-difference time-domain method, 2nd Edition, H. E. Schrank, Series Editor (Artech House, Boston, Ma, 2000).
  9. Lumerical Solutions, Inc.http://www.lumerical.com.
  10. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 3rd Edition (Roberts & Company Publishers, Englewood, Co, 2005), Chap. 5. [PubMed]

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