OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 10 — May. 12, 2008
  • pp: 7407–7417

Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures

A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, M. A. Seo, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C. M. Planken  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 10, pp. 7407-7417 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1308 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Using terahertz-light excitation, we have measured with sub-wavelength spatial, and sub-cycle temporal resolution the time- and frequency-dependent electric-field and surface-charge density in the vicinity of small metallic holes. In addition to a singularity like concentration of the electric field near the hole edges, we observe, that holes can act as differential operators whose near-field output is the time-derivative of the incident electric field. Our results confirm the well-known predictions made by Bouwkamp, Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321–332 (1950), and reveal, with unprecedented detail, what physically happens when light passes through a small hole.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1220) Diffraction and gratings : Apertures
(180.4243) Microscopy : Near-field microscopy
(300.6495) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, teraherz

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: April 1, 2008
Revised Manuscript: April 25, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: April 25, 2008
Published: May 6, 2008

A. J. L. Adam, J. M. Brok, M. A. Seo, K. J. Ahn, D. S. Kim, J. H. Kang, Q. H. Park, M. Nagel, and P. C.M. Planken, "Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures," Opt. Express 16, 7407-7417 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature (London) 391, 667-669 (1998) [CrossRef]
  2. T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures," Nature (London) 447, 517-521 (2007) [CrossRef]
  3. L. Novotny, D. W. Pohl, B. Hecht, "Scanning near-field optical probe with ultrasmall spot size," Opt. Lett. 20, 970-972 (1995) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, "Single Molecules Observed by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy," Science 257, 189-195 (1992) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, D. W. Pohl, "Scanning near-field optical microscopy with aperture probes: Fundamentals and applications," J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761-7774 (2000) [CrossRef]
  6. J. T. Bahns, F. Yan, D. Qiu, R. Wang, L. Chen, "Hole-enhanced Raman scattering," Appl. Spectrosc. 60, 989-993 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. G. Brolo, E. Arctander, R. Gordon, B. Leathem, K. L. Kavanagh, "Nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering," Nano Lett. 4, 2015-2018 (2004) [CrossRef]
  8. A. Degiron, H. J. Lezec, N. Yamamoto, T. W. Ebbesen, "Optical transmission properties of a single subwavelength aperture in a real metal," Opt. Commun. 239, 61-66 (2004) [CrossRef]
  9. R. S. Decca, H. D. Drew, K. L. Empson, "Investigation of the electric-field distribution at the subwavelength aperture of a near-field scanning optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1932-1934 (1997) [CrossRef]
  10. C. Genet, T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39-46 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Betzig, R. J. Chichester, "Single molecules observed by near-field scanning optical microscopy," Science 262, 1422-1425 (1993) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. A. Veerman, M. F. Garcia-Parajo, L. Kuipers, N. F. Van Hulst, "Single molecule mapping of the optical field distribution of probes for near-field microscopy," J. Microsc. 194, 477-482 (1999) [CrossRef]
  13. A. Drezet, S. Huant, J. C. Woehl, "In situ characterization of optical tips using single fluorescent nanobeads," J. Lumin. 107, 176-181 (2004) [CrossRef]
  14. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944) [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Bouwkamp, "On the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by circular disks and apertures," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 401-422 (1950)
  16. C. J. Bouwkamp, "On Bethe�??s theory of diffraction by small holes," Philips Res. Rep. 5, 321-332 (1950)
  17. A. Agrawal, H. Cao, and A. Nahata,"Time-domain analysis of enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture," Opt. Express 13, 3535-3542 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. Agrawal and A. Nahata, "Time-domain radiative properties of a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by an exit side surface corrugation," Opt. Express 14, 1973-1981 (2006) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. van Exter, D. R. Grischkowsky, "Characterization of an Optoelectronic Terahertz Beam System," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 1684-1691 (1990) [CrossRef]
  20. G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002) [CrossRef]
  21. N. C. J. van der Valk, P. C. M. Planken, "Electro-optic detection of sub-wavelength terahertz spot sizes in the near-field of a metal tip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1558-1560 (2002) [CrossRef]
  22. M. A. Seo, et al., "Fourier-transform terahertz near-field imaging of one-dimensional slit arrays: mapping of electric-field-, magnetic-field-, and Poynting vectors," Opt. Express 15, 11781-11789 (2007) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. F. J. Garcıa de Abajo, J. J. Saenz, I. Campillo, and J. S. Dolado, "Site and lattice resonances in metallic hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 7-18 (2006) [CrossRef]
  24. R. Gordon and A. G. Brolo, "Increased cut-off wavelength for a subwavelength hole in a real metal," Opt. Express 13, 1933-1938 (2005) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. J. Garcıa de Abajo, "Light transmission through a single cylindrical hole in a metallic film," Opt. Express 10, 1475-1484 (2002)
  26. T. Thio, et al., "Giant optical transmission of sub-wavelength apertures: physics and applications," Nanotechnology 13, 429-432 (2002) [CrossRef]
  27. O. Mitrofanov, et al., "Terahertz pulse propagation through small apertures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 907-909 (2001) [CrossRef]
  28. G. A. Massey, J. A. Davis, S. M. Katnik, and E. Ornon, "Subwavelength resolution far-infrared microscopy," Appl. Opt. 24, 1498-1501 (1985) [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. E. F. Barnett and J. K. Hunton, "A precision directional coupler using multi-hole coupling," Hewlett Packard Journal,  3 (No. 7-8) (1952).
  30. J. F. Nye, W. Liang, and G. Hygate, "Mapping a diffraction field close to an obstacle," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 37, 288-292 (1995). [CrossRef]
  31. J. F. Nye and W. Liang, "Superposition of the diffraction fields of apertures: an experimental test," Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 453, 1963-1974 (1997). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

Supplementary Material

» Media 1: MOV (3998 KB)     

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited