OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 12 — Jun. 9, 2008
  • pp: 8472–8479

Polarization selective electro-optic polymer waveguide devices by direct electron beam writing

Haishan Sun, Antao Chen, Benjamin C. Olbricht, Joshua A. Davies, Philip A. Sullivan, Yi Liao, Zhengwei Shi, Jingdong Luo, Alex K.-Y. Jen, and Larry R. Dalton  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 12, pp. 8472-8479 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.008472


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (663 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

A novel technique for the fabrication of polarization selective electro-optic polymer waveguide devices with direct electron beam writing was described. Birefringence induced by the electric field poling in the electro-optic polymer film was erased in the electron beam exposed regions. The formed waveguides had stronger confinement for the light polarized along the poling direction. High fabrication resolution on the 100 nm scale or smaller could be achieved. Fabrication of polymer polarizer and polarization selective microring resonators with this technique was reported. The highest polarization extinction ratio was measured to be 21.4 dB.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.2100) Materials : Electro-optical materials
(230.5750) Optical devices : Resonators
(220.4241) Optical design and fabrication : Nanostructure fabrication
(130.5440) Integrated optics : Polarization-selective devices
(130.5460) Integrated optics : Polymer waveguides

ToC Category:
Integrated Optics

History
Original Manuscript: February 14, 2008
Revised Manuscript: April 6, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: April 18, 2008
Published: May 27, 2008

Citation
Haishan Sun, Antao Chen, Benjamin C. Olbricht, Joshua A. Davies, Philip A. Sullivan, Yi Liao, Zhengwei Shi, Jingdong Luo, Alex K. Jen, and Larry R. Dalton, "Polarization selective electro-optic polymer waveguide devices by direct electron beam writing," Opt. Express 16, 8472-8479 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8472


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. T. Imai and T. Matsumoto, "Polarization fluctuations in a single-mode optical fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1366-1375 (1988). [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, and A. Dandridge, "Observation of input-polarization-induced phase noise in interferometric fiber-optic sensors," Opt. Lett. 13, 847-849 (1988). [CrossRef]
  3. S. Janz, "Silicon-based waveguide technology for wavelength division multiplexing," in Silicon Photonics, L. Pavesi, and D. J. Lockwood, eds., (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2004).
  4. M. Chin, C. Xu, and W. Huang, "Theoretical approach to a polarization-insensitive single-mode microring resonator," Opt. Express 12, 3245-3250 (2004). [CrossRef]
  5. W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, S. Howe, A. Liu, and M. Paniccia, "Polarization-independent optical racetrack resonators using rib waveguides on silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5523 (2004). [CrossRef]
  6. L. G. Kazovsky, "Phase- and polarization-diversity coherent optical techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 279-292 (1989). [CrossRef]
  7. D. J. W. Klunder, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, and A. Driessen, "A novel polarization-independent wavelength-division-multiplexing filter based on cylindrical microresonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1294-1299 (2002). [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Suematsu, M. Hakuta, K. Furuya, K. Chiba, and R. Hasumi, "Fundamental transverse electric field (TE0) mode selection for thin-film asymmetric light guides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 291-293 (1972). [CrossRef]
  9. S. Uehara, T. Izawa, and H. Nakagome, "Optical waveguiding polarizer," Appl. Opt. 13, 1753-1754 (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. L. Dalton, "Photonic integration improves on current technologies: Newsroom: SPIE.org," http://spie.org/x16998.xml?highlight=x2414.
  11. S. Herminghaus, B. A. Smith, and J. D. Swalen, "Electro-optic coefficients in electric-field-poled polymer waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2311-2317 (1991). [CrossRef]
  12. J. I. Thackara, G. F. Lipscomb, M. A. Stiller, A. J. Ticknor, and R. Lytel, "Poled electro-optic waveguide formation in thin-film organic media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1031-1033 (1988). [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Oh, S. Y. Shin, W. Y. Hwang, and J. J. Kim, "Poling-induced waveguide polarizers in electrooptic polymers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 375-377 (1996). [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, C. Loychik, D. Mathine, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K. Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, "Low half-wave voltage and high electro-optic effect in hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143506-143503 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. R. Song, A. Yick, and W. H. Steier, "Conductivity-dependency-free in-plane poling for Mach-Zehnder modulator with highly conductive electro-optic polymer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 191103-191103 (2007). [CrossRef]
  16. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. A. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. K. Y. Jen, and A. Scherer, "Optical modulation and detection in slotted silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 5216-5226 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Dalton, "Revisiting organic optical nonlinearity leads to a new class of materials: Newsroom: SPIE.org," http://spie.org/x17559.xml.
  18. R. H. Page, M. C. Jurich, B. Reck, A. Sen, R. J. Twieg, J. D. Swalen, G. C. Bjorklund, and C. G. Willson, "Electrochromic and optical waveguide studies of corona-poled electro-optic polymer films," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1239-1250 (1990). [CrossRef]
  19. S. K. Kim, K. Geary, D. H. Chang, H. R. Fetterman, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, C. Wang, and W. H. Steier, "TM-pass polymer modulators with poling-induced waveguides and self-aligned electrodes," Electron. Lett. 39, 721-722 (2003). [CrossRef]
  20. K. Dawes, L. C. Glover, and D. A. Vroom, "The Effects of Electron Beam and ?-Irradiation on Polymeric Materials," in Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook, J. E. Mark, ed., (Springer, New York, 2007).

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited