OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 12 — Jun. 9, 2008
  • pp: 8557–8569

Reversible switching of quantum cascade laser-modes using a pH-responsive polymeric cladding as transducer

Bernhard Basnar, Stephan Schartner, Maximilian Austerer, Aaron Maxwell Andrews, Thomas Roch, Werner Schrenk, and Gottfried Strasser  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 12, pp. 8557-8569 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.008557


View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1600 KB)





Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


   


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools

Share
Citations

Abstract

We present a novel approach for the reversible switching of the emission wavelength of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) using a halochromic cladding. An air-waveguide laser ridge is coated with a thin layer of polyacrylic acid. This cladding introduces losses corresponding to the absorption spectrum of the polymer. By changing the state of the polymer, the absorption spectrum and losses change, inducing a shift of 7 cm-1 in the emission wavelength. This change is induced by exposure to acidic or alkaline vapors under ambient conditions and is fully reversible. Such lasers can be used as multi-color light source and as sensor for atmospheric pH.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(160.5470) Materials : Polymers
(300.6340) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, infrared
(310.3915) Thin films : Metallic, opaque, and absorbing coatings
(310.4925) Thin films : Other properties (stress, chemical, etc.)
(140.5965) Lasers and laser optics : Semiconductor lasers, quantum cascade

ToC Category:
Lasers and Laser Optics

History
Original Manuscript: May 1, 2008
Revised Manuscript: May 21, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: May 21, 2008
Published: May 27, 2008

Citation
Bernhard Basnar, Stephan Schartner, Maximilian Austerer, Aaron Maxwell Andrews, Tomas Roch, Werner Schrenk, and Gottfried Strasser, "Reversible switching of quantum cascade laser-modes using a pH-responsive polymeric cladding as transducer," Opt. Express 16, 8557-8569 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-12-8557


Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  

References

  1. D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, and M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: a time of reckoning future applications?" Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005). [CrossRef]
  2. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sitori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887(2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. Barate, R. Teissier, Y. Wang, and A. N. Baranov, "Short wavelength intersubband emission from InAs/AlSb quantum cascade structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 051103 (2005). [CrossRef]
  5. J. Ulrich, J. Kreuter, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, and K. Unterrainer, "Long wavelength (15 and 23 µm) GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3691-3693 (2002). [CrossRef]
  6. B. S. Williams, "Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Nat. Photon. 1, 517-525 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, and G. W. Turner, "Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation," Nat. Photon. 1, 288-292 (2007). [CrossRef]
  8. J. Faist, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, C. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, and A. Y. Cho, "Distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2670-2672(1997). [CrossRef]
  9. C. Pflügl, M. Austerer, W. Schrenk, S. Golka, G. Strasser, R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, J. W. Cockburn, A. B. Krysa, and J. S. Roberts, "Single-mode surface-emitting quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211102 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. F. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, F. Capasso, "Quantum Cascade Surface-Emitting Photonic Crystal Laser," Science 302, 1374-1377 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, S. Anders, and G. Strasser, "Spectral dynamics of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, S336-S338 (2004). [CrossRef]
  12. S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, "Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041115 (2006). [CrossRef]
  13. L. Diehl, B. Lee, P. Behroozi, M. Lon??ar, M. Belkin, F. Capasso, T. Aellen, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, and J. Faist, "Microfluidic tuning of distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 14, 11660-11667 (2006). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Lon??ar, B. G. Lee, L. Diehl, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, "Design and fabrication of photonic crystal quantum cascade lasers for optofluidics," Opt. Express 15, 4499-4514 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Sarangan, W. P. Huang, G. P. Li, and T. Makino, "A ridge waveguide DFB laser model including transverse carrier and optical effects," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 408-416 (1996). [CrossRef]
  16. M. A. Belkin, M. Lon??ar, B. G. Lee, C. Pflügl, R. Audet, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, D. Bour, S. Corzine, and G. Höfler, "Intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy with narrow-ridge microfluidic quantum cascade lasers," Opt. Express 15, 11262-11271 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Bae, D. A. Scherson, and E. B. Yeager, "Infrared spectroscopic determination of pH changes in diffusionally decoupled thin-layer electrochemical cells," Anal. Chem. 62, 45-49 (1990). [CrossRef]
  18. J. Schenk, I. W. Marison, and U. von Stockar, "pH prediction and control in bioprocesses using mid-infrared spectroscopy," Biotechnol. Bioeng. 100, 82-83 (2008). [CrossRef]
  19. R. P. Green, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, D. G. Revin, J. W. Cockburn, C. Pflügl, W. Schrenk, G. Strasser, A. B. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, C. M. Tey, and A. G. Cullis, "High-performance distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5529-5531 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, M. Beck, and U. Oesterle, "Surface-emitting 10.1 µm quantum-cascade distributed feedback lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3769-3771 (1999). [CrossRef]
  21. V. Moreau, M. Bahriz, R. Colombelli, P.-A. Lamoine, Y. DeWilde, and L. R. Wilson, "Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114 (2007). [CrossRef]
  22. D. Sarkar and P. Somasundaran, "Conformatinal dynamic of poly(acrylic acid). A study using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy," Langmuir 20, 4657-4664 (2004). [CrossRef]
  23. H. Hoffmann, M. L. T. Liveri, and F. P. Cavasino, "Electric birefringence and zero-shear vixcosity studies of the conformational changes of polyacrylic and polymethacrylic acids with pH and concentration," J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 93, 3161-3165 (1997). [CrossRef]
  24. http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/.
  25. F. Mohammad, M. Z. A. Rahman, and A. Kassim, "An experimental study on diffusion in electrically conducting polymers," Chem. Environ. Res. 10, 41-46 (2001).
  26. P. Musto, L. Mascia, G. Mensitieri, and G. Ragosta, "Diffusion of water and ammonia through poyimide-silica bicontinuous nanocomposites: interactions and reactions" Polymer 46, 4492-4503 (2005). [CrossRef]
  27. D. O. Hummel and F. Scholl, Atlas der Polymer- und Kunststoffanalyse Band 2, Kapitel 5.4. (Carl Hanser Verlag, München & VCH, Weinheim, 1988).
  28. F. L. Buchholz and N. A. Peppas, "Superabsorbent polymers: science and technology" ACS Symp. Ser. 573 (1994). [CrossRef]
  29. J. Buchanan, B. Hird, and T. M. Letcher, "Primary hydration of poly(acrylic acid) sodium salts" Polym. Bull. 16, 493-498 (1985).
  30. S. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Guan, S. Tan, J. Xu, S. Cheng, and X. Zhang, "Water uptake behavior of hydrogen-bonded PVPON-PAA LBL film," Soft Matter 2, 699-704 (2006). [CrossRef]
  31. A. Oprea and U. Weimar, "High sensitivity polyacrylic acid films for ammonia detection with field effect devices," Sens. Actuat. B 111-112, 572-576 (2005). [CrossRef]
  32. M. Sahm, A. Oprea, N. Bârsan, and U. Weimar, "Water and ammonia influence on the conduction mechanisms in polyacrylic acid films," Sens. Actuat. B 127, 204-209 (2007). [CrossRef]
  33. K. Dioumaev, "Infrared methods for monitoring the protonation state of carboxylic amino acids in the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin," Biochemistry (Moscow) 66, 1269-1276 (2001). [CrossRef]
  34. M. Saito, T. Gojo, K. Yato, and M. Miyagi, "Optical constants of polymer coatings in the infrared," Infrared Phys. Technol. 36, 1125-1129 (1995). [CrossRef]
  35. Y. Wang, Y. Abe, Y. Matsuura, M. Miyagi, and H. Uyama, "Refractive indices and extinction coefficients of polymers for the mid-infrared region," Appl. Opt. 37, 7091-7095 (1998) [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.


« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited