OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 13 — Jun. 23, 2008
  • pp: 9501–9506

Widefield subsurface microscopy of integrated circuits

Fatih Hakan Köklü, Justin I. Quesnel, Anthony N. Vamivakas, Stephen B. Ippolito, Bennett B. Goldberg, and M. Selim Ünlü  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 13, pp. 9501-9506 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (407 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



We apply the numerical aperture increasing lens technique to widefield subsurface imaging of silicon integrated circuits. We demonstrate lateral and longitudinal resolutions well beyond the limits of conventional backside imaging. With a simple infrared widefield microscope (λ0=1.2µm), we demonstrate a lateral spatial resolution of 0.26µm (0.22λ0) and a longitudinal resolution of 1.24µm (1.03λ0) for backside imaging through the silicon substrate of an integrated circuit. We present a spatial resolution comparison between widefield and confocal microscopy, which are essential in integrated circuit analysis for emission and excitation microscopy, respectively.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(110.0180) Imaging systems : Microscopy
(120.4630) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical inspection
(180.1790) Microscopy : Confocal microscopy

ToC Category:

Original Manuscript: April 17, 2008
Revised Manuscript: June 6, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: June 9, 2008
Published: June 12, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Fatih Hakan Köklü, Justin I. Quesnel, Anthony N. Vamivakas, Stephen B. Ippolito, Bennett B. Goldberg, and M. Selim Ünlü, "Widefield subsurface microscopy of integrated circuits," Opt. Express 16, 9501-9506 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. C. Xu and W. Denk, "Two-photon optical beam induced current imaging through the backside of integrated circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578-2580 (1997). [CrossRef]
  2. E. Ramsay, D. T. Reid, and K. Wilsher, "Three-dimensional imaging of a silicon flip chip using the two-photon optical-beam induced current effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7-9 (2002). [CrossRef]
  3. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors Update, 2006.
  4. S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, "High spatial resolution subsurface microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 4071-4073 (2001). [CrossRef]
  5. S. M. Mansfield and G. S. Kino, "Solid immersion microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2615-2617 (1990). [CrossRef]
  6. S. B. Ippolito, S. A. Thorne, M. G. Eraslan, B. B. Goldberg, M. S. Unlü, and Y. Leblebici, "High spatial resolution subsurface thermal emission microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4529-4531 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. E. Ramsay, N. Pleynet, D. Xiao, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, "Two-photon optical-beam-induced current solid-immersion imaging if a silicon flip chip with a resolution of 325 nm," Opt. Lett. 30, 26-28 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. Ramsay, K. A. Serrels, M. J. Thomson, A. J. Waddie, M. R. Taghizadeh, R. J. Warburton, and D. T. Reid, "Three-dimensional nanoscale subsurface optical imaging of silicon circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131101 (2007). [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Liu, B. B. Goldberg, S. B. Ippolito, A. N. Vamivakas, M. S. Unlü, and R. Mirin, "High resolution, high collection efficiency in numerical aperture increasing lens microscopy of individual quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 071905 (2005). [CrossRef]
  10. A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, S. T. Dreiser, J. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Unlü, "Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot," Nano Lett. 7, 2892-2894 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. B. Pawley, Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy, 3rd ed., (Springer Press, 2006), p. 209.
  12. S. B. Ippolito, B. B. Goldberg, and M. S. Unlü, "Theoretical analysis of numerical aperture increasing lens microscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053105 (2005). [CrossRef]
  13. M. A. Green and M. Keevers, "Optical properties of intrinsic silicon at 300k," Prog. Photovoltaics 3, 189-192 (1995). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Wilson and C. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic Press, 1984) p. 28.
  15. S. B. Ippolito, P. Song, D. L. Miles, and J. D. Sylvestri, "Angular spectrum tailoring in solid immersion microscopy for circuit analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 101109 (2008). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited