OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 13 — Jun. 23, 2008
  • pp: 9554–9564

Near-field focusing properties of zone plates in visible regime – New insights

Rakesh G. Mote, S. F. Yu, B. K. Ng, Wei Zhou, and S. P. Lau  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 13, pp. 9554-9564 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (547 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Near-field focusing properties of zone plates are investigated in the visible regime by a 3-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. It is shown that Frensel zone plates (FZPs) with metallic coatings can achieve subwavelength focusing in the visible wavelength. The characteristics of subwavelength focusing are found to be independent of the type of metal coatings used. All the FZPs exhibit similar shift in focal length and depth of focus when compared with classical calculations. These results indicate that plasmonic waves do not contribute to subwavelength focusing. Instead the subwavelength focusing characteristic is attributed to the interference of diffracted evanescent waves from a large numerical aperture. It is found that the near-field focusing of FZPs suppresses higher order foci such that the corresponding diffraction efficiency is improved. The use of phase zone plate structured on glass without opaque coating is proposed to improve the diffraction efficiency of subwavelength focusing.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(050.1970) Diffraction and gratings : Diffractive optics
(240.6680) Optics at surfaces : Surface plasmons
(050.6624) Diffraction and gratings : Subwavelength structures

ToC Category:
Diffraction and Gratings

Original Manuscript: March 31, 2008
Revised Manuscript: May 3, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: May 19, 2008
Published: June 13, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 7 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Rakesh G. Mote, S. F. Yu, B. K. Ng, Wei Zhou, and S. P. Lau, "Near-field focusing properties of zone plates in visible regime - New insights," Opt. Express 16, 9554-9564 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson, and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused X-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006). [CrossRef]
  2. W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, G. Denbeaux, B. Harteneck, A. L. Pearson, D. Olynick, F. Salmassi, C. Song, and D. Attwood, "Demonstration of 20 nm half-pitch spatial resolution with soft X-ray microscopy," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 3108-3111 (2003). [CrossRef]
  3. D. Gil, R. Menon, D. J. D. Carter, and H. I. Smith, "Lithographic patterning and confocal imaging with zone plates," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2881-2885 (2000). [CrossRef]
  4. H. I. Smith, R. Menon, A. Patel, D. Chao, M. Walsh, and G. Barbastathis, "Zone-plate-array lithography: A low-cost complement or competitor to scanning-electron-beam lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 83, 956-961 (2006). [CrossRef]
  5. D. Marks and P. S. Carney, "Near-field diffractive elements," Opt. Lett. 30, 1870-1872 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Fu, W. Zhou, L. E. N. Lim, C. L. Du, and X. G. Luo, "Plasmonic microzone plate: Superfocusing at visible regime," Appl. Phy. Lett. 91, 061124 (2007). [CrossRef]
  7. D. Attwood, Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000).
  8. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Boston, 1991).
  9. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  10. H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629-3651 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. D. Beynon and R. M. R. Strange, "Computational study of diffraction patterns for near-field Fresnel and Gabor zone plates," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 101-106 (2000). [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, "Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes," Phys. Rev. B 58, 6779-6782 (1998). [CrossRef]
  14. T. Thio, K. M. Pellerin, R. A. Linke, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Enhanced light transmission through a single subwavelength aperture," Opt. Lett. 26, 1972-1974 (2001). [CrossRef]
  15. M. H. Horman, "Efficiences of zone plates and phase zone plates," Appl. Opt. 6, 2011-2013 (1967). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. R. Jones, "The focal properties of phase zone plates," British J. Appl. Phys. D 2, 1789-1791 (1969). [CrossRef]
  17. B. Lai, W. B. Yun, D. Legnini, Y. Xiao, J. Chrzas, P. J. Viccaro, V. White, S. Bajikar, D. Denton, F. Cerrina, E. Di Fabrizio, M. Gentili, L. Grella, and M. Baciocchi, "Hard X-ray phase zone plate fabricated by lithographic techniques," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1877-1879 (1992). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited