OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 15 — Jul. 21, 2008
  • pp: 11670–11679

Epi-third and second harmonic generation microscopic imaging of abnormal enamel

Szu-Yu Chen, Chin-Ying Stephen Hsu, and Chi-Kuang Sun  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 15, pp. 11670-11679 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (1054 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



Enamel covers the tooth crown and is responsible for protecting the inner tissues of the teeth. It is thus clinically important to diagnose the anomalies in tooth enamel structures in the early stage for prevention and treatment. In this article, we report the epi-harmonic-generation-microscopic study of various abnormal enamel from the nature surface of human teeth. With a 1230 nm light source and with an epi-collection scheme, an imaging depth greater than 300μm can be achieved. The contrast sources of THG and SHG in the abnormal enamel have been identified and verified by comparing the images from the sound enamel with those from white spot lesions, cracks, and the irradiated enamel. Besides the previously reported interprismatic space, THG is found to be contributed from cracks or the material inhomogeneities inside the enamel prisms; while SHG is attributed to the strain-induced breakage of the 6/m point group symmetry. Combined with the high 3D spatial resolution and no energy release during imaging, our study shows that the infrared-laser-based epi-harmonic generation microscopy can provide different contrasts to differentiate the abnormal enamel from sound enamel and could provide a valuable tool for in vivo monitoring of both morphological changes and strain status of hydroxyapatite crystals in the enamel without sectioning and staining.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(170.1850) Medical optics and biotechnology : Dentistry
(170.3880) Medical optics and biotechnology : Medical and biological imaging
(190.1900) Nonlinear optics : Diagnostic applications of nonlinear optics
(190.4160) Nonlinear optics : Multiharmonic generation

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: February 26, 2008
Revised Manuscript: May 9, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: June 22, 2008
Published: July 18, 2008

Virtual Issues
Vol. 3, Iss. 8 Virtual Journal for Biomedical Optics

Szu-Yu Chen, Chin-Ying S. Hsu, and Chi-Kuang Sun, "Epi-third and second harmonic generation microscopic imaging of abnormal enamel," Opt. Express 16, 11670-11679 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. R. W. Fearnhead, Tooth enamel (Florence, 1989).
  2. Y. C. Chiang, B. S. Lee, Y. L. Wang, Y. A. Cheng, Y. L. Chen, J. S. Shiau, D. M. Wang, and C. P. Lin, "Microstructural changes of enamel, dentin-enamel junction, and dentin induced by irradiating outer enamel surfaces with CO2 laser," Lasers Med. Sci. 23,41-48 (2008). [CrossRef]
  3. A. H. Meckel, W. S. Griebstein, and R. J. Neal, "Structure of mature human dental enamel as observed by electron microscopy," Arch. Oral Biol. 10,775-783 (1965). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. N. Newman, and D. F. G. Poole, "Observations with scanning and transmission electron-microscopy on structure of human surface enamel," Arch. Oral Biol. 19, 1135-& (1974). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. J. Radlanski, H. Renz, U. Willersinn, C. A. Cordis, and H. Duschner, "Outline and arrangement of enamel rods in human deciduous and permanent enamel. 3D-reconstructions obtained from CLSM and SEM images based on serial ground sections," Oral Sci. 109, 409-414 (2001). [CrossRef]
  6. M. K. Yamada, M. Uo, S. Ohkawa, T. Akasaka, and A. Watari, "Non-contact surface morphology analysis of CO2 laser-irradiated teeth by scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope," Mater. Trans. 45, 1033-1040 (2004). [CrossRef]
  7. M. K. Yamada, and F. Watari, "Imaging and non-contact profile analysis of Nd:YAG laser-irradiated teeth by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy," Dent. Mater. 22, 556-568 (2003). [CrossRef]
  8. T. F. Watson, A. Azzopardi, M. Etman, P. C. Cheng, and S. K. Sidhu, "Confocal and multi-photon microscopy of dental hard tissues and biomaterials," Am. J. Dent. 13, 19D-24D, (2000).
  9. C. J. Lin, and F. J. Kao, "Harmonic generation microscopy of dental sections," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper CMG6, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI-CLEO-2003-CMG6
  10. F. J. Kao, "The use of optical parametric oscillator for harmonic generation and two-photon UV fluorescence microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 175-181 (2004). [CrossRef]
  11. C. K. Sun, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy," Adv. Biochem. Engin./Biotechnol. 95, 17-56 (2005).
  12. M. H. Chen, W. L. Chen, Y. Sun, P. T. Fwu, and C. Y. Dong, "Multiphoton autofluorescence and second-harmonic generation imaging of the tooth," J. Biome. Opt. 12,064018 (2007). [CrossRef]
  13. R. Elbaum, E. Tai, A. I. Perets, D. Oron, D. Ziskind, Y. Silberberg, and H. D. Wagner, "Dentin micro-architecture using harmonic generation microscopy," J. Dent. 35, 150-155 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. C. L. Darling, G. D. Huynh, and D. Fried, "Light scattering properties of natural and artificially demineralized dental enamel at 1310 nm," J. Biome. Opt. 11,034023 (2006). [CrossRef]
  15. C. K. Sun, S. W. Chu, S. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, T. M. Liu, C. Y. Lin, and H. J. Tsai, "Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology," J. Struct. Bio. 147, 19-30 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. D. J. White, K. M. Kozak, J. R. Zoladz, H. J. Duschner, and H. Gotz, "Effects of Crest whitestrips bleaching on subsurface microhardness and ultrastructure of tooth enamel and coronal dentin," Am. J. Dent. 17, 5-11 (2004). [PubMed]
  17. Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70,922-924 (1996). [CrossRef]
  18. E. Sanchez-Pastenes, and J. Reyes-Gasga, "Determination of the point and space groups for hydroxyapatite by computer simulation of CBED electron diffraction patterns," Revista Mexicana De Fisica 51,525-529 (2005).
  19. E. F. Bres, "Space-group determination of human tooth-enamel crystals," Acta Cryst. B 49, 56-62 (1993). [CrossRef]
  20. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 1992).
  21. T. Zhao, H. Lu, F. Chen, G. Yang, and Z. Chen, "Stress-induced enhancement of second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities of barium titanate films," J. Appl. Phys. 87,7448-7451 (2000). [CrossRef]
  22. I. L. Lyubchanskii, N. N. Dadoenkova, M. I. Lyubchanskii, Th. Rasing, J. W. Jeong, and S. C. Shin, "Second-harmonic generation from realistic film-substrate interfaces: The effects of strain," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76,1848-1850 (2000). [CrossRef]
  23. C. Zhang, X. Xiao, N. Wang, K. K. Fung, and M. M. T. Loy, Z. Chen, and J. Zhou, "Defect-enhanced second-harmonic generation in (SimGen)p superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72,2072-2074 (1998). [CrossRef]
  24. W. H. Jiang, and W. W. Cao, "Second harmonic generation of shear waves in crystals," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 51, 153-162 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. T. Y. Huang, A. S. Jones, L H He, M. A Darendeliler, and M. V. Swain, "Characterization of enamel white spot lesions using X-ray micro-tomography," J. Dent. 35,737-743 (2007). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Amjad, P. G. Koutsoukos, and G. H. Nancollas, "The mineralization of enamel surfaces. A constant composition kinetics study," J. Dent. Res. 60, 1783-1792 (1981). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. E. Popowics, J. M. rensberger, and S. W. Herring, "Enamel microstructure and microstrain in the fracture of human and pig molar cusps," Arch. Oral Bio. 49, 595-605 (2004). [CrossRef]
  28. I. Ichim, Q. Li, W. Li, M. V. Swain, and J. Kieser, "Modelling of fracture behaviour in biomaterials," Biomaterials 28, 1317-1326 (2007). [CrossRef]
  29. A. Wenzel, "Digital radiography and caries diagnosis," Dentomaxillofacial Radiol. 27,3-11 (1998). [CrossRef]
  30. M. O. Culjat, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, R. R. Neurgaonkar, D. C. Yoon, and S. N. White, "Ultrasound crack detection in a simulated human tooth," Dentomaxillofacial Radiol. 34,80-85 (2005). [CrossRef]
  31. A. Ribeiro, C. Rousseau, J. Girkin, A. Hall, R. Strang, C. J. Whitters, S. Creanor, and A. S. L. Gomes, "A preliminary technique for investigation of a spectroscopic the diagnosis of natural caries lesions, " J. Dent. 33,73-78 (2005). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. M. Fontana, Y. Li, A. J. dunipace, T. W. Noblitt, G. Fischer, B. P. Katz, and G. K Stookey, "Measurement of enamel demineralization using microradiography and confocal microscopy-a correlational study," Caries Research 30,317-325 (1996). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Lussi, R. Hibst, and R. Paulus, "DIAGNOdent: an optical method for caries detection," J. Dent. Res. 83,C80-C83 (2004). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. E. D. J. Dejong, F. Sundstrom, H. Westerling, S. Transeus, J. J. Tenbosch, and B. Angmarmansson, "A new method for in-vivo quantification of changes in initial enamel caries with laser fluorescence," Caries Res. 29,2-7 (1995). [CrossRef]
  35. M. A. Pogrel, D. F. Muff, and G. W. Marshall, "Structural changes in dental enamel induced by high energy continuous wave carbon dioxide laser," Lasers Surg.Med. 13,89-96 (1993). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. L. Aponte, and F. F. Feagin, "Effects of F- on recrystallization-remineralization and acid resistance of enamel," J. Dent. Res. 57,87 (1978).
  37. B. O. Fowler, and S. Kuroda, "Changes in heated and in laser-irradiated human tooth enamel and their probable effects on solubility," Calcif. Tissue Int. 38, 197-208 (1986). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. H. C. Kim, K. S. Lee, O. S. Kweon, C. G. Aneziris, and I. J. Kim, "Crack healing, reopening and thermal expansion behavior of Al2TiO5 ceramics at high temperature," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27, 1431-1434 (2007). [CrossRef]
  39. L. D. Cynthia, and D. Fried, "Real-time near IR (1310nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel," Opt. Express 16, 2685-2693 (2008). [CrossRef]
  40. C. P. Lin, F. H. Lin, Y. C. Tseng, S. H. Kok, W. H. Lan, and J. D. Liao, "Treatment of tooth fracture by medium energy CO2 laser and DP-bioactive glass paste: compositional, structural and phase changes of DP-bioglass paste after irradiation by CO2 laser," Biomaterials 21,637-643 (2000). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. Serbin, T. Bauer, C. Fallnich, A. Kasenbacher, and W. H. Arnold, "Femtosecond laser as novel tool in dental surgery," Appl. Surf. Sci. 197,737-740 (2002). [CrossRef]
  42. C. L. Tsai, Y. T. Lin, S. T. Huang, and H. W. Chang, "In vitro acid resistance of CO2 and Nd-YAG laser treated human tooth enamel," Caries Res. 36,423-427 (2002). [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited