OSA's Digital Library

Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 18 — Sep. 1, 2008
  • pp: 13781–13799

Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation

D. A. Simpson, W. E. K Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 18, pp. 13781-13799 (2008)

View Full Text Article

Enhanced HTML    Acrobat PDF (388 KB)

Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Browse by Journal and Year


Lookup Conference Papers

Close Browse Journals / Lookup Meetings

Article Tools



The spectroscopic properties of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under excitation at 980 nm are reported. Three distinct up-conversion fluorescence bands were observed in the visible to near infra-red regions. The blue and red fluorescence bands at 475 and 650 nm, respectively, were found to originate from the 1G4 level of Tm3+. A three step up-conversion process was established as the populating mechanism for these fluorescence bands. The fluorescence band at 800 nm was found to originate from two possible transitions in Tm3+; one being the transition from the 3H4 to 3H6 manifold which was found to dominate at low pump powers; the other being the transition from the 1G4 to 3H6 level which dominates at higher pump powers. The fluorescence lifetime of the 3H4 and 3F4 levels of Tm3+ and 2F5/2 level of Yb3+ were studied as a function of Yb3+ concentration, with no significant energy back transfer from Tm3+ to Yb3+ observed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(060.2320) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics amplifiers and oscillators
(060.2330) Fiber optics and optical communications : Fiber optics communications
(300.6280) Spectroscopy : Spectroscopy, fluorescence and luminescence

ToC Category:
Fiber Optics and Optical Communications

Original Manuscript: July 18, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 13, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 14, 2008
Published: August 21, 2008

D. A. Simpson, W. E. Gibbs, S. F. Collins, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, G. Monnom, P. Peterka, and G. W. Baxter, "Visible and near infra-red up-conversion in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped silica fibers under 980 nm excitation," Opt. Express 16, 13781-13799 (2008)

Sort:  Author  |  Year  |  Journal  |  Reset  


  1. T. Kasamatsu, Y. Yano, and T. Ono, "Laser-diode-pumped highly efficient gain-shifted thulium-doped fiber amplifier operating in the 1480-1510-nm band," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 433-435 (2001). [CrossRef]
  2. S. Aozasa, T. Sakamoto, T. Kanamori, K. Hoshino, K. Kobayashi, and M. Shimizu, "Tm-doped fiber amplifiers for 1470-nm-band WDM signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1331-1333 (2000). [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Martins, "Dual-wavelength (1050 nm plus 1550 nm) pumped thulium-doped fiber amplifier characterization by optical frequency-domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 24-26 (2003). [CrossRef]
  4. A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig-Ryan, "Amplified spontaneous emission in Tm3+-doped monomode optical fibers in the visible region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2169-2171 (1990). [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Hewes, "Infrared excitation processes for visible luminescence of Er3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+ in Yb3+-sensitized rare-earth trifluorides," Phys. Rev. 182, 427 (1969). [CrossRef]
  6. F. W. Ostermayer, J. P. van der Ziel, H. M. Marcos, L. G. Uitert, and J. E. Geusic, "Frequency upconversion in YF3:Yb3+,Tm3+," Phys. Rev. B,  3, 2698-2705 (1971). [CrossRef]
  7. Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, "980 nm laser-diode-excited intense blue upconversion in Tm3+/Yb3+-codoped gallate-bismuth-lead glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911-171913 (2005). [CrossRef]
  8. X. Shiqing, M. Hongping, F. Dawei, Z. Zaixuan, and J. Zhonghong, "Upconversion luminescence and mechanisms in Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses," J. Lumin. 117, 135-140 (2006). [CrossRef]
  9. J. Mendez-Ramos, F. Lahoz, I. R. Martin, A. B. Soria, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, and V. D. Rodriguez, "Optical properties and upconversion in Yb3+-Tm3+/ co-doped oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics," Mol. Phys. 101, 1057-1065 (2003). [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. Thrash, and L. F. Johnson, "Upconversion laser emission from Yb3+-sensitized Tm3+ in BaY2F8," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  11, 881-885 (1994). [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Noginov, M. Curley, P. Venkateswarlu, A. Williams, and H. P. Jenssen, "Excitation scheme for the upper energy levels in a Tm:Yb:BaY2F8 laser crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B,  14, 2126-2136 (1997). [CrossRef]
  12. D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, "Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers," Opt. Commun. 78, 187-194 (1990). [CrossRef]
  13. B. Faure, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier and G. Monnom, "Improvement of the Tm3+:3H4 level lifetime in silica optical fibers by lowering the local phonon energy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 2767-2773 (2007). [CrossRef]
  14. S. D. Jackson, "Power scaling method for 2 µm diode-cladding-pumped Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers that uses Yb3+ codoping," Opt. Lett. 28, 2192-2194 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. D. Jackson, "Cross relaxation and energy transfer upconversion processes relevant to the functioning of 2 µm Tm3+-doped silica fibre lasers," Opt. Commun. 230, 197-203 (2004). [CrossRef]
  16. S. D. Jackson, and S. Mossman, "Efficiency dependence on the Tm3+ and Al3+ concentrations for Tm3+-doped silica double-clad fiber lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 2702-2707 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. A. Clarkson, N. P. Barnes, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, and D. C. Hanna, "High-power cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength tuning from 1860 to 2090 nm," Opt. Lett. 27, 1989-1991 (2002). [CrossRef]
  18. A. Hayward, W. A. Clarkson, P. W. Turner, J. Nilsson, A. B. Grudinin, and D. C. Hanna, "Efficient cladding-pumped Tm-doped silica fibre laser with high power singlemode output at 2 µm," Electron. Lett. 36, 711-712 (2000). [CrossRef]
  19. B. M. Walsh, and N. P. Barnes, "Comparison of Tm:ZBLAN and Tm:silica fiber lasers; spectroscopy and tunable pulsed laser operation around 1.9 µm," Appl. Phys. B, Lasers Opt. 78, 325-333 (2004). [CrossRef]
  20. B. Peng, and T. Izumitani, "Blue, green and 0.8 µm Tm3+,Ho3+ doped upconversion laser glasses, sensitized by Yb3+," Opt. Mater. 4, 701-711 (1995). [CrossRef]
  21. F. C. Guinhos, P. C. Nobrega, and P. A. Santa-Cruz, "Compositional dependence of up-conversion process in Tm3+-Yb3+ codoped oxyfluoride glasses and glass-ceramics," J. Alloys Compd. 323-324, 358-361 (2001). [CrossRef]
  22. F. Yan, C. Xiaobo, S. Feng, L. Kun, and Z. Guangyin, "Upconversion luminescence of ZBLAN:Tm3+,Yb3+ glass pumped by a ~970 nm LD and its concentration effect," Proc. SPIE 116-120 (1998).
  23. R. Caspary, M. M. Kozak, D. Goebel, and W. Kowalsky, "Excited state absorption spectroscopy for thulium-doped zirconium fluoride fiber," Opt. Commun. 259, 154-157 (2006). [CrossRef]
  24. T. Tamaoka, S. Tanabe, S. Ohara, H. Hayashi, and N. Sugimoto, "Fabrication and blue upconversion characteristics of Tm-doped tellurite fiber for S-band amplifier," J. Alloys Compd. 408, 848-851 (2006). [CrossRef]
  25. Y. H. Tsang, D. J. Coleman, and T. A. King, "High power 1.9 µm Tm3+-silica fibre laser pumped at 1.09 µm by a Yb3+-silica fibre laser," Opt. Commun. 231, 357-364 (2004). [CrossRef]
  26. P. Peterka, B. Faure, W. Blanc, M. Karasek, and B. Dussardier, "Theoretical modelling of S-band thulium-doped silica fibre amplifiers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 36, 201-212 (2004). [CrossRef]
  27. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, "Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049-1056 (1997). [CrossRef]
  28. D. A. Simpson, "Spectroscopy of thulium doped silica glass," (Victoria University, Melbourne, 2008).
  29. D. A. Simpson, G. W. Baxter, S. F. Collins, W. E. K. Gibbs, W. Blanc, B. Dussardier, and G. Monnom, "Energy transfer up-conversion in Tm3+-doped silica fiber," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 136-141 (2006). [CrossRef]
  30. A. S. L. Gomes, M. T. Carvalho, M. L. Sundheimer, C. J. A. Bastos, J. F. Martins, J. P. Von der Weid, W. Margulis, "Low-pump-power, short-fiber copropagating dual-pumped (800 and 1050 nm) thulium-doped fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 28, 334-336 (2003). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. L. Dexter, T. Forster, and R. S. Knox, "Radiationless transfer of energy of electronic excitation between impurity molecules in crystals," Phys. Status Solidi 34, 159 (1969). [CrossRef]

Cited By

Alert me when this paper is cited

OSA is able to provide readers links to articles that cite this paper by participating in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. CrossRef includes content from more than 3000 publishers and societies. In addition to listing OSA journal articles that cite this paper, citing articles from other participating publishers will also be listed.

« Previous Article  |  Next Article »

OSA is a member of CrossRef.

CrossCheck Deposited