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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 18 — Sep. 1, 2008
  • pp: 13955–13960

Full Recess Integration of Small Diameter Low Threshold VCSELs within Si-CMOS ICs

James M. Perkins, Travis L. Simpkins, Cardinal Warde, and Clifton G. Fonstad  »View Author Affiliations


Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 18, pp. 13955-13960 (2008)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.013955


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Abstract

Oxide-aperture vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have been integrated as individual device pills within the dielectric stacks of commercially produced silicon integrated circuits and monolithically connected electrically with the underlying circuitry using technology compatible with wafer-scale processing. The 55 µm diameter, 8 µm tall device pills were bonded in recesses etched to reveal buried contact/bond pads included in the IC layout; the surface was replanarized, contact vias formed, and interconnect metal deposited and patterned. The typical CW threshold current, 1 to 2.5 mA, was the same before and after integration, and integrated devices had thermal impedances similar to devices on their native GaAs substrates.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(250.3140) Optoelectronics : Integrated optoelectronic circuits
(250.7260) Optoelectronics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
(140.7260) Lasers and laser optics : Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers

ToC Category:
Optoelectronics

History
Original Manuscript: June 11, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 19, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 21, 2008
Published: August 25, 2008

Citation
James M. Perkins, Travis L. Simpkins, Cardinal Warde, and Clifton G. Fonstad, Jr., "Full Recess Integration of Small Diameter Low Threshold VCSELs within Si-CMOS ICs," Opt. Express 16, 13955-13960 (2008)
http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13955


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References

  1. See for example:Heterogeneous Optoelectronic Integration, E.  Towe, ed. (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 2000).
  2. S. Daryanani, H. Fathollahnejad, D. L. Mathine, R. Droopad, A. Kubes, and G. N. Maracas, "Integration of a Single Vertical-cavity Surface Emitting Laser onto a CMOS Inverter Chip," Electron. Lett. 31, 833-834 (1995). [CrossRef]
  3. J. K. Tu, J. J. Talghader, M. A. Hadley, and J. S. Smith, "Fluidic Self-assembly of InGaAs Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers onto Silicon," Electron. Lett. 31, 1448-1449 (1995). [CrossRef]
  4. C. G. FonstadJr., E. Atmaca, W. Giziewicz, J. Perkins, and J. Rumpler, "Progress in Developing and Extending RM3 Heterogeneous Integration Technologies," Singapore-MIT Alliance Symposium, January 2003.
  5. The VCSEL heterostructure was grown by LandMark Optoelectronics Corporation.
  6. The mesas were etched in a solution of H2SO4, H2O2 (30%), and H2O (1:18:20 by volume). The same etchant was used to remove the GaAs substrate.
  7. K. D. Choquette, K. M. Geib, C. I. H. Ashby, R. D. Twesten, O. Blum, H. Q. Hou, D. M. Follstaedt, B. E. Hammons, D. Mathes, and R. Hull, "Advances in selective wet oxidation of AlGaAs alloys," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 916-927 (1997). [CrossRef]
  8. WaferBondTM is a product of Brewer Science Incorporated.
  9. T. Simpkins, C. G. Fonstad, and C. Warde, "Architecture of the Compact Optoelectronic Integrated Neural (COIN) Coprocessor," Information Optics, AIP Conference Proceedings,  860, 113-121 (2006). [CrossRef]
  10. MOSIS Integrated Circuit Fabrication Service, USC Information Sciences Institute.
  11. J. M. Perkins, "Low Threshold Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers Integrated onto Si-CMOS ICs Using Novel Hybrid Assembly Techniques," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts of Technology, Cambridge, MA, August 2007.
  12. G. S. Matijasevic, C. Lee, and C. Y. Wang "Au-sn alloy phase diagram and properties related to its use as a bonding medium," Thin Solid Films 223, 276-287 (1993). [CrossRef]
  13. M. S. Teo, "Development of Pick and Place Assembly Techniques for Monolithic Optopill Integration," MS. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts of Technology, Cambridge, MA, January 2005.
  14. The BCB used in this work was Cyclotene 3022-46 Resin produced by Dow Chemical Company.
  15. J. M. Perkins and C. G. Fonstad, manuscript in preparation.
  16. C. G. Fonstad, "Optical Solderb Bumps: A Modular Approach to Monolithic Optoelectonics Integration," International Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, (2001) 584-588.

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