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Optics Express

Optics Express

  • Editor: C. Martijn de Sterke
  • Vol. 16, Iss. 19 — Sep. 15, 2008
  • pp: 14780–14791

Optical nonlinearities in silicon for pulse durations of the order of nanoseconds at 1.06 µm

Kazuhiko Ogusu and Kenta Shinkawa  »View Author Affiliations

Optics Express, Vol. 16, Issue 19, pp. 14780-14791 (2008)

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We study free-carrier nonlinearities in crystalline silicon at 1.064 µm using the Z-scan technique, with special emphasis on the dependence of their nonlinearities on the width of incident pulses. In the Z-scan experiment, the pulse duration was changed from 11.5 ns to 1.6 ns by the pulse compression using stimulated Brillouin scattering in a liquid. At this excitation wavelength, linear absorption is dominant for the creation of electron-hole pairs and the photoexcited carriers can modify the refractive index and absorption coefficient just as a third-order nonlinear effect. The effective nonlinear refractive index n2eff and nonlinear absorption coefficient βeff are proportional to the pulse duration and optical intensity, i.e. the fluence when the pulse duration is shorter than the carrier recombination lifetime. We can determine the variation of refractive index per unit of photoexcited carrier density σr and the total carrier absorption cross section σab from the dependence of n2eff and βeff on the pulse width, respectively. In this work we had σr = -1.0 × 10-21 cm3 and σab = 8.4 × 10-18 cm2, which agree well with previous data. We also observed the decrease in the magnitude of n2eff and βeff at high incident fluence, which is presumably attributed to band filling. This new measurement approach has an advantage of being able to separate an ultrafast Kerr nonlinearity and a cumulative nonlinearity such as the free-carrier nonlinearity treated in this paper and can be utilized to evaluate the optical nonlinearities of other materials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

OCIS Codes
(120.4530) Instrumentation, measurement, and metrology : Optical constants
(160.4330) Materials : Nonlinear optical materials
(160.6000) Materials : Semiconductor materials
(190.3270) Nonlinear optics : Kerr effect
(190.4400) Nonlinear optics : Nonlinear optics, materials
(290.5900) Scattering : Scattering, stimulated Brillouin

ToC Category:
Nonlinear Optics

Original Manuscript: June 23, 2008
Revised Manuscript: August 31, 2008
Manuscript Accepted: August 31, 2008
Published: September 4, 2008

Kazuhiko Ogusu and Kenta Shinkawa, "Optical nonlinearities in silicon for pulse durations of the order of nanoseconds at 1.06 µm," Opt. Express 16, 14780-14791 (2008)

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